James Stephens Brown

4 Jul 1828 - 25 Mar 1902

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James Stephens Brown

4 Jul 1828 - 25 Mar 1902
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James Stephens Brown was born July 4, 1828 in Davidson County, North Carolina. When he was three years of age his parents moved from North California to Brown County, Illinois. It was here that the parents became converts of the Latter-day Saint Church. The family moved to Iowa where James, after he
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James Stephens Brown

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Salt Lake City Cemetery

200-250 N St
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah
United States
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marmiehill

April 8, 2013
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marmiehill

April 7, 2013

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Captain James Stephens Brown

Colaborador: marmiehill Created: 1 year ago Updated: 1 year ago

James Stephens Brown was born July 4, 1828 in Davidson County, North Carolina. When he was three years of age his parents moved from North California to Brown County, Illinois. It was here that the parents became converts of the Latter-day Saint Church. The family moved to Iowa where James, after hearing the leaders of the Church with regard to the raising of the Mormon Battalion, was baptized and immediately enlisted with that group in Company D and made the historic trek to the West Coast. After arriving in Utah he did extensive missionary work and also brought many emigrants to Utah. Becoming a convert to "Mormonism," he was baptized in 1844 and joined the "Mormon" exiles as they were being driven away from Illinois. Bro. Brown participated in the exodus, and after the arrival on the Missouri river he enlisted in the Mormon Battalion and marched all the way to California as a member of that illustrious body. After his discharge in California in 1847, he, together with others of the "Mormon" boys, found employment with a Mr. Sutter on the Sacramento river and was one of those Mormon Battalion boys who first discovered gold in California. In 1848 he arrived in Salt Lake Valley, where he passed through all the experiences incident to pioneer life. He was ordained a Seventy and became a member of the third quorum of Seventy. In the fall of 1849 he was called on a mission to the Society Islands, which mission he filled with great diligence and much success, passing through experiences and hardships, which even for a "Mormon" missionary were exceptionally dangerous and hard. On one occasion, when the natives threatened to burn him at the stake, he was saved by the miraculous power of God. After being at length expelled from the Society Islands by the French authorities, he returned to Utah, and was for a number of years closely associated with Indian missions, in which labor he was again very successful. Sept. 23, 1862, he returned to Salt Lake City after having filled a successful mission to Great Britain. Soon after his return from that mission he met with a severe accident by which he lost one of his legs and was thus maimed for the remainder of his days. For a number of years he spent much of his time lecturing in different parts of the Territory, for notwithstanding his limited education he was a most interesting speaker. In 1892-1893 he filled another successful mission to the Society Islands. In 1898 he was invited to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of gold in California. He being one of the original discoverers, was made a guest of honor on that occasion. Bro. Brown died March 25, 1902, at his home in Salt Lake City, leaving a large posterity. Before his death he wrote an interesting sketch of his life which was published in book form under the title "Life of a Pioneer," being the Autobiography of James S. Brown," in which interesting work the details of Bro. Brown's life are depicted in a way calculated to inspire faith and confidence in the great Latter-day Work, to which Bro. Brown devoted his life's strength and energy. During his lifetime Bro. Brown married four wives. His first wife was Lydia Jane Tanner. The names of her children are Lydia J., Rachel Elizabeth, Emeretta, James T., Zina May, August, and Valentine. His second wife was Rebecca Ann McBride, whom he married in September, 1854. The names of her children were Deseret, Daniel, Alveretta, Vantile Mac, Burtina, Pauline, Homer, and Alphonso. His third wife was Eliza Lester, whom he married Jan. 31, 1863, and who bore him nine children. Their names are Leo, Zimania Wilford, Elando, Annie Eliza, Frank Lester, Charles, Sarah-Emma, and Ada. His last wife was Elizabeth Clegg, whom he married March 4, 1872, and whose children were named Mary Lillious, Gaurdello, Mark C., Benjamin Joseph, Louetta, and Myrtle J. At his death Elder Brown was survived by three of his wives and twenty-one of the above named children, all of whom are members of the Church in which Elder Brown had implicit faith and in whose service he spent the greater part of his life. ___ James Stephens Brown had a sealing marriage with Mary Brown, or Polly, as seems to be the common practice of that time to use this nickname for someone named Mary, was born 1789 in Rowan County, North Carolina. Polly was very closely associated with her younger sister, Nancy Brown (1792-1870). The two sisters married but not in the usual sense of the word. Both sisters were sealed later in their lives to male relatives, Nancy was sealed to William Coe Critchlow on the 6th of November 1852, and Polly was sealed to James Stephens Brown on the 31st of August 1855. They were sealed for eternity only and did not live with their respective sealing partners. The two sisters spend most of their lives together. Mary Polly Brown Brown died 25 Dec 1876 in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, at the age of 87. Polly was described by family members as being a "typical southerner". She smoked a corn cob pipe and had a Scotch-Irish quick, snappy temper but was passionately devoted to her family.

James Stephens Brown by Edith Larsen Baker

Colaborador: marmiehill Created: 1 year ago Updated: 1 year ago

If the life of James Stephens Brown were to be summed up with just one phrase, it would have to be "Missionary Work." Nearly his entire life was spent on one mission or another – twice in Tahiti, once in Great Britain, once to the Eastern United States, and numerous missions to the Navajo, Sioux, Shoshone, and other Indian tribes. If his life were to be characterized by another word, it would have to be "Adventure," for within the pages of his life are found the stuff of which legends are made. Leaving his family behind to travel west with a new religious group, nearly losing his life in the Mormon Battalion, being part of the first discovery of gold at Sutter's Fort in California, being attacked by a wild bear, shipwrecked at sea, encounters with island natives that included nearly being burned alive, nearly dying of smallpox, bringing the Book of Mormon to the famous Chief Washakie, being attacked by wolves, losing a leg because of an accidental shooting – all these and more are the true adventures (that sometimes seem "stranger than fiction") of this "Giant of the Lord." * * * * * * * * * * * * * EARLY LIFE James S. was born on Independence Day, July 4, 1828 in North Carolina to Daniel Brown and Mary (Molly) Emerson Williams. The family members were pioneers in Illinois and they had no churches or schoolhouses closer than ten miles from their home. But instead of learning their "abc's", they learned to hunt, fish, train horses, make their own farm equipment, braid their own whips, raise their own honey, grow their own sugar, and they even learned to shake from the ague and burn with the fever. In a few years, people began to settle more closely to the Browns, and the people soon heard that a new religious group had been driven out of Missouri into Illinois. It was not long before a traveling Elder by the name of Jacob Pfoutz was preaching in the vicinity and converted James's aunt and uncle. James decided to go and hear the preacher preach, more out of curiosity than anything. Of this occasion James wrote: "As to myself, it seemed that I had not only heard it thunder, but I had seen the lightning and felt it through every fiber of my system, from the crown of my head to the soles of my feet. . . . Notwithstanding the fact that I knew the Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, were looked upon as filth, in fact as even worse than rubbish, that they had been called the very off-scourings of the earth, that they were regarded as deserving to be put to death, yet from that very day I received their doctrine in or by the spirit." James was at this time twelve years old. Sixty years later, in writing his autobiography, James declared that even though he had "passed through mobbings, robbings, fines and penalties; have been banished and once sentenced to death; Paul-like have fought with wild beasts, have been shipwrecked and almost starved; have famished on thirsty deserts; have had the scalping-knife wielded over my head while the Indian war-whoop saluted my ears and the savage warrior danced with tomahawk in hand. . . . ; have laid in dungeons for my religion's sake – thanks be to God that I yet live and bear a faithful testimony of the truth and spirit that possessed my soul from that first Gospel sermon I ever heard." His parents and oldest brother and sister were baptized into the new religion, but James did not feel himself worthy to be baptized yet, although he believed with all his heart. He thought that he should have some wonderful vision or manifestation before he would be worthy to be baptized. His former playmates, however, took up a crusade against him because of his new belief, and they "baptized" him plenty of times in the mill pond. They called it baptizing but James called it drowning. Then they would mockingly "lay hands" on him in the name of Beelzebub and pull his hair and spit on him. When he finally got tired of all their bad treatment, he went after them with his strong jack-knife. After that they left him alone. In July, 1844, news reached the Browns that the Prophet Joseph and his brother Hyrum had been assassinated, and that the Saints were being driven out of Nauvoo. The family held a council to decide whether they ought to gather with the Saints or not, and it was decided that they could not afford to go at this time. James was still not baptized, but when asked his opinion he declared that where the Mormons went he would go, and where they died he would die. He thought perhaps he could go as a teamster for someone. Although his father ordered him to keep quiet, saying that he would thrash him if he talked of leaving home, James was determined to go, even if it meant living among the Indians. So, his father relented a little and said that James, his father, his Uncle Alexander Stephens, and two of his maiden aunts would go out to Iowa with the Saints and prepare the way for the others to follow. When the time came for departure, James was very sick with the ague, but he would not let that stop him. His father was sure that he would not last long on the journey before wanting to return home, but James knew that he would rather die than be left behind. The second day out, he began to be very ill, and he prayed to the Lord and was healed. They reached Nauvoo in May of 1846, only to witness the last of the city's inhabitants in the process of leaving. They thrilled at seeing the temple, but were saddened at the necessity of the Saints leaving it. They continued west to the Grand River in Iowa where they put in a large garden and then James's father returned to bring the rest of the family. Then came the rumors of the U.S. war with Mexico and that the government wanted volunteers from the Mormons. Although James was still formally unbaptized, he felt a desire to enlist after listening to Brigham Young, but he also felt a responsibility to look after his father's affairs as he had promised. It was at this time that his very tardy baptism took place in the Grand River. James was 17 years old at this time. He was confirmed by Elders Willard Richards and Ezra T. Benson in the presence of Brigham Young and others of the Twelve Apostles. The following day, when seeking counsel from Elder Benson, James was told that his promptings to join the Battalion were right, that he would be blessed and that his father would find no fault with him, and that he would never be sorry for enlisting. Accordingly, James and his uncle Alexander Stephens handed in their names and were enrolled in the historic Mormon Battalion. Every word of Elder Benson's promise was fulfilled. * * * * * * * * * MORMON BATTALION James and his companions left to join the larger group of the Battalion at the Missouri River. They were ill-prepared, partly because they had been ill-advised that they could obtain provisions along the way. They did not even have a blanket to wrap themselves in. At the Missouri River camp, they did obtain one blanket each, but no other equipment. James always remembered the address given to the men by Brigham Young just prior to their departure wherein he promised them that not one of them should fall by the hand of an enemy, and that their names should be held in honorable remembrance forever. Then they set off on their journey of more than two thousand miles. At Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, they received one tent to each six men, which gave them some protection, and they drew their first pay with which they purchased some clothing and shoes, sending the rest home to their families. They again resumed their march, enduring storms, hunger, thirst, and sickness, the full story of which may be read in James's autobiography. The infamous camp doctor by the name of Sanderson cannot go without mention here. There was much sickness, produced by frequent changes in the drinking water and by poorly cooked food. The commander had ordered the sick out of the wagons and directed that before they could ride they must be reported by the doctor as unable to walk, and must take a dose of the doctor's drugs from his rusty spoon. The doctor was very unkind, and his medicine was even worse if that were possible. The men were determined not to respond to sick call if they could possibly walk. Soon after they passed through Santa Fe, the rations were reduced to one-third the amount allowed by law. Some of the men were called upon to substitute for mules and carry heavy loads of ammunition, and in this condition they must now wade the rivers, sometimes waist deep. Of one crossing, James wrote, "Our comrades took our muskets over the point while we lifted at the wagons. As the water was waist deep, when the men would stoop to lift, it would wet our clothing very nearly to the armpits; our shoes also were filled with sand. Wet and cold, almost chilled, we continued our march through deep sands, pushing and pulling at the wagons till our clothing dried on our bodies, our shoes became so dry and hard that walking was very painful and difficult, and our feet became raw. If this had been all, we might have had less reason to complain; but when an irritated officer . . . swore at us as if we were brutes, when we were already burdened almost beyond endurance, it is no wonder there was an impulsive desire to retaliate. For my own part, my feelings never were so outraged, and the desire for revenge never ran so high and wild as then. . . . As we tramped on through the sands, we became so weak it was almost impossible to keep our ankles from striking together as we walked, and our hard and dry shoe-tops would cut our ankles till the blood came." * * * * * * * * * * After crossing the Rio Del Norte, the officers despaired of being able to keep the men alive, as they were desperately short of food. Then they ran entirely out of water, coming one night to a place called Dry Lake. Here I again quote from James's own words: "That was the hardest day for me that came in the experience of the whole journey. I had been run down so low with a severe attack of dysentery that I could travel no longer and laid down. My thirst was intense, and it did not seem possible that I could live till morning. . . . Men went by, looking like death, their mouths black, their eyes sunken till it was difficult to recognize them. Some eyes had a staring glare, which looked as if the monster death were close at hand. Yet the men staggered on, their feet hitting each other, *** for tat, as one was dragged past the other. The hopes of these men were greater than mine, for I had ceased to march. . . . Just when my hopes were flickering as does a candle when the wick has all but burned out, there came to my ears the sound as of the tinkling of a tin can. Then my uncle Alexander Stephens came in sight. He had . . . found a dripping of water as it seeped from a crevice in the rock. He had quenched his thirst and filled his canteen. When [he] came up he handed me his canteen. . . . I did not think myself able to rise to my feet, but . . . by a final effort we reached Dry Lake camp by halting at short intervals along the four miles we had to travel. Wretched, wretched indeed, was the condition of the command that night. . . . Next morning, at the doctor's call . . . , two men sat me upon the ground and held me up till my time came. . . . Dr. Sanderson called out, "What is the matter with you?" [He then declared] "I've a d__d great mind not to report you sick." I answered that it did not matter to me whether he entered me on the sick list or not, for I could not walk. . . . Then he ordered the steward to give me a dose of the castor oil and laudanum, stating the quantity. The steward, William Spencer, said, "Isn't it a rather heavy dose?" to which the doctor responded with a curse, telling him to do as he was ordered. At that the dose was poured into a teacup, filling it half full. It was given to me, the steward saying in a low tone of voice, "If you do not throw it up it will kill you." I was assisted back to the company's wagon and soon vomited the medicine. . . . For four days I lay in a dull stupor, when that phase of the disease was checked and a very high fever set in. My sufferings were so terrible that some of my messmates came into the tent, anointed me with oil, then administered to me; and although burning with a high fever till it seemed that I could not live, I was instantly healed, so that when they took their hands off, the fever was entirely gone and I was wet with perspiration. From that time, I began to gather strength." * * * * * * * * * * The bedraggled group pushed on through what is now Arizona to what was then known as the Ninety-five Mile Desert which lay between them and the Gila River. They were in deplorable condition. Many were the men that lay down by the wayside without a hope that they would live to reach water. When they finally reached the river, their clothes were so tattered and torn that they could hardly cover their nakedness. Down the river a few miles, they came upon a Pima Indian village. Seeing their starved condition, these Indians (who were an agricultural people) cut up a lot of pumpkins, boiled them, and handed them out to the men, for which the men were grateful. After leaving this settlement, they came upon the Maricopa Indians, where they traded brass buttons for food. One brass button was worth more than a five dollar gold piece. Again they pushed on, crossing the Colorado River with great difficulty and marching for southern California. They had to dig for water, and what they found was not much good. Again they came very close to dying of starvation and thirst, but finally reached Los Angeles, California. A couple of times they were put on alert that there would be a battle with the Mexicans, but it always turned out to be a false alarm. In January of 1847, they passed over the battlefield where General Kearney had defeated the Mexicans, and they remembered the promise of Brigham Young that not one of them should fall by the hand of an enemy. James knew that only God had inspired that prophecy, and that it was because of God's goodness that they had been able to reach their destination. * * * * * * * * * * GOLD On the 16th of July, 1847, the term of enlistment for the Battalion was up. Some of the men re-enlisted, but James was among those who set out to meet up with the Saints in the Salt Lake Valley. They decided that the best route was by way of Sutter's Fort near what is now Sacramento. When they reached that place, they decided to remain there in the employ of Captain Sutter for a time, so that they could earn money and provisions to finish their journey. It was while helping to build the grist mill for the fort that James S. Brown happened to be with James Marshall when he discovered the first gold in California on January 24, 1848. James S. Brown took the first scales of gold that Marshall had found, tested them with his teeth, then with the hammer, and finally tested them in a very hot fire, after which he assuredly proclaimed that it was indeed gold! Although the world gives credit for the gold find to Capt. John Sutter and James Marshall, it was members of the Battalion that did the hard labor that discovered the metal. James never received a penny from Sutter for the one hundred days that he worked for him, as Sutter declared that his business was ruined by the gold find. James was able, however, to make some money out of the gold he found, and so he and 36 others outfitted themselves with wagons and provisions for the trip to Salt Lake in June of 1848. He was not sorry to leave the gold fields, for he knew that there were more important things in life than gold. The men found that they would have to make their own road, as one did not exist in the direction they wanted to go. They had some encounters with the Indians along the way, but nothing serious. It was September when the weary travelers came in sight of Ogden, which had been settled by the uncle of James S., Capt. James Brown. They continued on to Salt Lake City, it having been more than two years since they had been with the main body of the Saints. They had marched over 4,000 miles and were glad to be "home." * * * * * * * * * MISSION TO TAHITI James S. Brown endured the difficult winter of 1849 along with the rest of the Saints in the Valley. Many suffered from frostbite, and James lost every nail on his toes because of frostbite. Then, at the following harvest season when the Saints were about to harvest their first good crop, the "crickets" attacked. James witnessed the miracle of the sea gulls, and states that that kind of bird had not been seen before by the people in the valley. Shortly after this experience, James S. Brown, now 21 years old, was ordained a Seventy and called by Brigham Young to go on a mission to the Society Islands. In answer to President Young's call, James said, "I am an illiterate youth, cannot read or write, and I do not know what good I can do; but if it is the will of the Lord that I should go, and you say so, I will do the best that I can." President Young then said to young James, "It is the will of the Lord that you go, and I say go; I am not afraid to risk you. And I promise you in the name of the Lord God of Israel that if you go, you will be blessed and do good, and be an honor to yourself and to the Church and kingdom of God. Although men will seek your life, you shall be spared and return to the bosom of the Church in safety." A few days later, starting out on the journey to California (where he would get a boat for the islands), James passed the home of Dr. Willard Richards, counselor to Pres. Brigham Young. Brother Richards told him that while he was in the islands, "men will seek your life, and to all human appearance there will be no possible escape; then look unto God, and His angels shall draw near unto you, and you shall be delivered to return home to this people." This promise was very much like the one which Pres. Young had given him. In company with Jefferson Hunt of the Mormon Battalion, James set out on a difficult and eventful journey, through what is now Las Vegas to Los Angeles, then north to San Francisco. They crossed the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the winter time! For a complete account of this journey, see the autobiography. From San Francisco on April 20, 1850, James boarded a steamer for the island of Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean. * * * * * * * * * James was very seasick on the voyage, not being able to keep anything down for seven days. They finally reached Tahiti on May 24, having been at sea for over a month. Brother Addison Pratt was to labor in the islands with James. He had been to Tahiti before and could speak the language. These missionaries found that the Catholic priest and the Protestant ministers in the area were doing all they could to prevent people from listening to them. Also government officials were suspicious of them. James spent most of his time trying to learn the language, which at first seemed difficult but began to come easier before long. The food of the islands was very different from that which James was used to. Shortly after his arrival, food became very scarce and they were reduced to eating sea-snails and large bugs that were found on the edge of saltwater pools. James thought that a dish of these bugs, with their legs sticking out in all directions, was a strange sight for a white man, but when a man had gone long enough without food, he thought that they became quite tempting. He also learned to eat something that resembled young snakes, and jellyfish, which was eaten raw and resembled the white of an egg. Wild boar was another "delicacy", which he found hard and tough. One day, James decided to chase a boar, and it led him so far away from water that he thought that he should die of thirst and heat. On returning, he came to a coconut tree, which he tried in vain to climb. He sat down in the shade of the tree in despair. After a bit of a rest, he took aim with his gun and shot down two coconuts, but then could not find a way to open them in order to drink the milk. So he started down the mountain with them and finally came to an old man who was cutting coconuts. This man hurried down the tree, opened the nut, and James could finally drink. James wished him a prophet's reward, and learned from the experience never to chase boars again. * * * * * * * * * * Because the French government, which controlled the Society Islands, felt that they had had some trouble with the previous LDS missionaries, James and Brother Addison Pratt were confined to one small area of the island until the governor could ascertain whether or not to give his permission for them to travel and proselyte at will. Finally permission was granted and the real missionary work could begin. James had spent most of his time in seclusion studying the language, and had done so well that the natives were moved to declare that "The Lord helps the Mormon missionaries learn our language, for in three months they speak it better than other foreigners do in five years." Although James was glad to be able to travel and preach, he found the weather very rainy and the people not very receptive. They were friendly until they found out that he was a Mormon missionary – then they would become very cool. Some of the people were cautious because they had had bad experiences with some of the Protestant ministers in the area. On one occasion, James was called to see a young woman by the name of Maui who had been under medical treatment by the Protestant ministers for four months. She was very thin – just skin and bones – and she was so weak that she could not stand alone. She said that she had heard of the doctrine that the Mormons preached, and she knew it was true because it was all in the Bible. She was a very respected scholar in the area, and the people were amazed that she had called for the Mormons! She asked for baptism so, after interviewing her, James baptized her, having to hold her upright in the water while he said the prayer. Upon coming up out of the water, she exclaimed, "I am healed of the Lord," and she walked out of the water and home without assistance. This young lady was James's first convert, and it aroused so much excitement among the people that the ministers sent the police to arrest James. He, however, was protected by the Lord and was able to keep out of their hands. The ministers then began to warn the people against the missionaries, saying that if they even spoke to them, they would not be permitted to partake of the sacrament in their church, and if they went to hear them preach, they would be excommunicated. Then these ministers hatched a plot whereby they thought they could trap James into wrongdoing and thereby prove to the people that the Mormons were no good. They sent two pretty young women, all dressed up and perfumed, to James with the instructions to pretend interest in the Church and then to seduce him into immoral behavior with them. These young ladies went directly from the minister's house to James's house, not telling anyone else of the plan. Their plan failed miserably, however, because it was not long after they entered that James knew by the spirit of discernment exactly what they were up to. He told them that he knew their plans, saying, "Now if you wish anything of that kind, you must return to your masters who sent you, and tell them that if they wish you to be accommodated in that way, they will have to do it themselves, for Mormon Elders are not guilty of such practices, though they have proofs that the ministers are." They then confessed that what he said was true, and were amazed that he could have known what they were planning to do. * * * * * * * * * * James did not have much success with the islanders at this time because of the strong persecution, but he did baptize a few. In July of 1851, James traveled to the island of Anaa. As they were landing, a man came bounding through the water, coming straight up to James and handed him a little rag in which were wrapped five pearls. He said, "Here! I have seen you before. You have come to be our president, for you have been shown to me in a dream. Welcome, welcome to our land!" Then he carried James to shore on his back. The people on shore had prepared a feast of welcome. James soon found out that there were about 900 members of the Church on Anaa, and that the Catholic priests were building four churches, but no one would go to them. This was indeed a change! As the man had foretold, James was soon appointed to preside on Anaa, and the other missionaries went to other islands. He was alone in his work on the islands quite a lot, as it was not a rule then as it is now that a missionary must have a companion at all times. On one occasion, soon after his arrival in Anaa, he was questioned about California and the gold fields; also about his birthplace and his residence in Salt Lake City. He took a sheet of paper and sketched a rough outline of the gold fields. One of the natives seemed greatly interested and asked for the sketch, which was given to him. He soon returned with a large sheet of drawing paper and asked James to draw a map on a larger scale showing his birthplace, Salt Lake City, and the gold fields. In the course of the discussion, he told the people that he had been in California because he went there with the Mormon Battalion in the service of the United States during the war with Mexico. Little did he realize that he was mapping out the outlines of a foundation for a wicked and false charge to be brought against him by the Catholic priest. He would soon be charged with being a skilled civil engineer and a graduate from some United States army school, and trying to cause a rebellion in the islands. In the meantime, James was having very good success among the people. They wanted him to help them organize schools, which he did. He was promptly threatened by the Catholic priest that he was not to interfere with THEIR schools (which he had no intention of doing), and that if he did, they would have him tried before the governor. Soon after this, the people prepared a great feast in honor of the missionaries, and after the food was all spread out, a spokesman paid the following honors to James in the Tahitian language: "James, as a token of our great love and respect for you, the servant of God, we the people of Otapipi, Anaa, have collected of all the varieties of food that our land affords, and a few articles of use. Here is a pig, there is a fish, and fowl, and here are coconuts. This is meat and drink for us, and all that is produced in our land. We wish you to accept it from all of us as your true friends, and we wish you to eat and be full. Be our president and teacher in the Gospel, and a teacher of our children, for we are glad to have you come to our land as a father and guide. Our hearts are full of gladness that God has sent you to our land [so] that we may be taught to love the true and living God, for we have always been in the dark and did not know there was a true and living God to love and worship. Now we have no more to say. Amen." This was representative of several such addresses that were given on other similar occasions. The following Sunday, James baptized 35 people, the Sunday after that another 19, and the next Sunday 25 more. The island people called him "Iatobo", the Tahitian word for "James" as a sign of their love for him. Even the nonmembers were fond of him. About this time, James had a remarkable dream. He dreamed that God appeared and told him to go to a field and replant where the birds and squirrels had destroyed the grain, so he went to work and the replanting was soon done. Then he was shown a field of wheat in the spring that was about eight inches high and growing nicely. Just then a herd of cattle came in, breaking down the fence and trampling everything they came to. He heard a voice say, "Drive them out," and as he attempted to do so, a fiery red bull made a charge for him, so that it seemed that he would be gored to death. But, as the animal lowered its head, James seized it by both horns and bore its head to the earth. The animal turned a somersault, both horns being sunk to the head in the earth, and the bull's neck being broken. Then a black and white bull came up in the same fierce manner, and it met with the same fate. Then the herd of cattle cleared away, but only after much damage had been done. When he awoke from this dream, James felt that there would be more trouble ahead for him. He knew that one of the priests that had caused him so much trouble had fiery red hair, and another was freckle-faced, seeming to indicate the two bulls. * * * * * * * * * * Young James was often called upon to serve as both physician and dentist to the people of the islands, as they had no knowledge of these things. He was once called to see a man who had been suffering nearly a whole year with a swelling in his hip and thigh. No one in the village dared to lance it, but after getting the permission of all the relatives (so that he would not be held responsible for any resulting problems), James performed the operation with his penknife, draining off at least six pints of the most offensive matter. After this case, he was called to help in similar things such as swollen jaws, boils, carbuncles, etc. He extracted many teeth to relieve toothache, sometimes using a rusty nail or any kind of an old piece of iron to punch the tooth out. His best dentist tool was his rifle bullet mold, using both ends for forceps. * * * * * * * * * * On one occasion, seven very rough characters came in to a sacrament meeting, sitting in the back and making loud, rude remarks about the young ladies of the choir. When they partook of the sacrament they said that when the meeting was out they would administer the sacrament in a very different manner to that in which the Mormons did it. After the meeting, they came up to the young ladies and made wicked propositions to them, then went out still boasting of what they would do at nightfall. But their threats were never carried out, for in a very short time three of them were stricken with severe cramps and were dead before the next morning. The other four had symptoms of the same thing, and were also dead before the week was up. * * * * * * * * * * Soon after this, James was instrumental in making peace between two groups of islanders who were about to war with each other. He was amazed that these people could be so fierce and war-like, and yet at the first sound of a church bell they would become meek and quiet, so great was their reverence for religious services. After this experience, James inquired of the people about their traditions, superstitions, and methods of warfare. He learned that it had been the case in the past, when two war parties approached each other, that they would dance, boasting and threatening, until within a few feet of each other, when they would then leap at each other in hand-to-hand conflict. Their women would follow behind the men, and as each man incapacitated his enemy, the woman would finish him off by beheading him and throwing the head into her large basket. When the war was over, each family would bury their captured heads close to their home. The number of heads constituted the social standing of the family, so that the family with the most skulls would be chief or king. James also learned that the islanders had a tradition that whatever gave them pain, they should eat. So, if they were wounded by a sharp stone or by a sliver, they would extract it and eat it, saying, "You are my enemy, you never shall hurt me more." James thought that this strange practice might have had something to do with the origin of cannibalism. In inquiring into these practices, James spoke with one lady who was very old. In answer to questions about cannibalism, she said, "I have followed my fathers, brothers, husband and sons in battle, and we ate our victims as we would eat pork or fish." When asked if she had eaten white man's flesh, and if so, how it tasted, she replied, "Yes. The white man's flesh is hard, tough and salty, while the flesh of the native is sweet and tender." When asked if she did not feel remorse after having done these things, she said, "Not a bit. It was in our days of heathendom; but now, since the Gospel has come to us, we have no desire for anything of that kind, though formerly we took pleasure in our practices, for our minds were very dark." * * * * * * * * * * * It was shortly after this that the trouble with the Catholic priest which had been foreshadowed did occur. The priest had bribed one of the governors and had gotten a decision against the missionaries, even though the great majority of the people on the island were in favor of the missionaries. A French warship landed on the island, and James was arrested. He was informed that he was to appear before the governor's aide-de-camp at 9:00 o'clock, and if he did not come willingly, they had orders to drag him there like a dog. He accompanied them readily and without a word. He was read a long list of charges and answered "not guilty" to each one. He was charged with subverting the laws of the French protectorate, interfering with government schools, hoisting the American flag, enrolling 3,000 men for the American government who would be controlled by the Mormon Church, arming the men, being a civil engineer, ordering the people to demolish some of the towns and rebuild with better fortifications, being a graduate of a U.S. military school, having great power with the native people, and being capable of doing much mischief in the country. All the charges were without the slightest foundation, except that he had much influence with the people. James was sure he could prove himself innocent, until he was informed that it had been decided that he must go to the main island of Tahiti for trial. James had no way of transporting his witnesses to that place, so he knew that his case was pretty much hopeless. The people were incensed. About five hundred gathered on the shore as he was put on the boat, declaring that where their missionary went they would go, too, and saying, "It is the Catholic priests who have done this with their lies." The people were restrained by the soldiers, and the boat set sail. Hardly out of the harbor, the boat ran into what seemed to be hundreds or even thousands of whales. The boat was in terrible danger of being smashed to pieces by these great animals, and James felt that even with all his experiences with Indians, hungry wolves, grizzly bears, rattlesnakes, wild buffalos stampeding, etc., he had never been quite so frightened as he was of the whales. Luckily, they passed through unharmed. On the warship, James was treated very badly by the French soldiers, which did not make him think too highly of the "most stylish, the proudest, the most fashionable people in the world." Upon reflecting on his actions while on the island of Anaa, James could not see that he had done anything against any person or against any law, so he felt that he could trust in the Lord that all would work out all right. In Papeete, Tahiti, James was tried, much as Jesus was tried, on trumped up charges, without witnesses and in secret. When he saw how things were going, he "arose and asked the court what right it had to try me with closed doors, not even allowing me the opportunity to defend myself. I told them I was an American citizen and claimed my rights as such under existing treaties and international laws. I quoted law that I had never read or heard mentioned, for it was given to me of the Lord in the hour that I had need." Although at the time he made this declaration, the authorities felt ashamed, still it was eventually used as one more evidence that he was a government man for the U.S. Following the trial, the U.S. Consul in Tahiti intervened in behalf of James, and arranged that he could leave on the next boat. This he did, going to the island of Raivavai, four hundred miles southeast of Tahiti and outside of the French protectorate. * * * * * * * * * * On the island of Raivavai, James found Addison Pratt, who promptly sailed away to another island, leaving James to preside over the Church there. There were only eight Church members on this very small island, with the rest of the inhabitants (383 in number) opposed to the Church. James found these people to be some of the most savage and rudest that he had met – scarcely removed from cannibalism. They did not hesitate to tell of their experiences in eating human flesh and sacrificing infant children to their idols. James began traveling around this island and preaching. He baptized a few, and that caused much excitement. A council was called to adopt ways by which the islanders could get rid of Mormonism and the "American plant," as they called him. Some proposed to fasten the "plant" on a log and tow it out to sea where the sharks would eat it, while others suggested burning or making a roast of him. James continued his preaching and was able to baptize 20 more into the Church, but the Protestant ministers continued to inflame the people against him. In May of 1852 (James was now nearly 24 years old), a meeting was called to decide definitely what to do with the Mormon and his followers. The young braves came armed with muskets, shouting and yelling, saying they were going to have a fat roast for tomorrow. They kindled fires and began shouting, singing, and dancing. They kept up a continual howl all night long, while James and his friends held prayer and testimony meeting, never sleeping a moment the whole night. The next day was spent in continued feasting and rowdiness. In the afternoon, two large ruffians came to bring James before the council. Suddenly, it was brought to James's mind the promises that had been made to him by Pres. Brigham Young and Willard Richards, that though men should seek his life, yet he should return in safety to the bosom of the Saints. The Spirit told him that he had not forfeited those promises, and all his fear was driven away. Without hesitation he arose and walked out to the beach where the people were assembled. One faithful Mormon man named Rivae and his wife with an eight-month-old baby in her arms stepped forward. This brave brother said, "If you burn this man," pointing to James, "you burn me first." Then the heroic wife stepped forward, holding her babe at arm's length and shouted, "I am a Mormon and this baby is a Mormon . . . and you will have to burn all of us, or Mormonism will grow again." Rivae and his wife were ordered to stand back, and James was confronted by Tabate, the spokesman. He said, "Iatobo, you have caused the people of our land to sin by having them to travel more than a Sabbath day's journey on the Sabbath. You have also taught the people that God is a material God, and that is not lawful to teach in our land." He then said, "Look there at that fire. It is made to consume the flesh off of your bones." At that moment the Spirit of the Lord rested mightily upon James, and he declared, "In the name of Israel's God, I defy ten of your best men, yea, the host of you, for I serve that God who delivered Daniel from the den of lions, and the three Hebrew children from the fiery furnace!" He was absolutely cool and unshaken. After this stirring speech, the natives began to quarrel and fight with one another until the whole assemblage were fighting. There was no more talk of burning him, and he was left to do his work on the island. Some two months later as James was traveling alone he happened upon one of the old men who had been a party to the decision to burn him. When the man saw James, he turned and ran. James overtook him and demanded to know why he ran from him. He answered, "Your God is a God of power and I was afraid to meet His servant." James asked how he knew that his God was a God of power and why they had not burned him as they had decided to do. He answered, "At the moment that you defied us, there was a brilliant light or pillar of fire bore down close over your head. It was a bright as the sun. We remembered reading in the Bible about Elijah calling fire down from heaven so that it consumed the captains and their fifties. . . . The young men did not see the light. They were going to burn you, and we tried to stop them. So we got into a fight. Now we all know that you are a true servant of God and we do not like to meet you out of fear." Although the islanders did not bother James any more, they did not seem to be any more disposed to learn the Gospel either. After spending seven months alone on the island of Raivavai without any news from the outside world, James learned that it was sometimes several years between boats arriving at their island. Finally he did receive a letter from Elder Grouard in Tahiti informing him that the U.S. Consulate had received permission for James to return to Tahiti in order for him to be allowed to return to the U.S. He was being released from his mission. * * * * * * * * * * En route to Tahiti, James made a stop at the island of Rapia. The people there had never seen a Mormon, but had heard the most ridiculous stories about them. They had heard that Mormons had cloven feet and shells on their backs and were some kind of mongrel between man and beast. When they discovered that James was just like any other man, and mild mannered to boot, he was finally permitted to go up to the village. He attended one of the church services on the island and asked permission to speak. After saying only a few words, he received an order from the presiding priest to leave the island. Some of the people differed with the priest, however, and he was invited to a banquet at the governor's. Here he had an experience that was very strange to him. A young girl about sixteen years old came in, tore the roasted chicken to pieces and proceeded to hold the meat up to his mouth. He drew back. Someone said, "Let her wash, he thinks she is dirty." So she washed, and tried again. Still he did not eat, so they thought he did not like her dark color, and called a lighter-skinned girl. Still he refused the "courtesy." They tried to explain to James that this was their custom – that the women always fed the men and then ate the scraps that were left over. James did not like it and preferred to be called a heathen. While on this island, James noted some gourds and watermelons growing. He had not seen anything like this on any other island that he had visited, and asked how they came there. He was informed that their forefathers had brought them from their fatherland in the east. They knew only that it was a big land with lots of food, great forests and big rivers that were full of fish. James concluded that these island peoples were probably descended from those of Book of Mormon times who sailed away in the ships of Hagoth. * * * * * * * * * * On October 27, they sailed again for Tahiti, encountering a very severe storm. They finally landed in Papeete, Tahiti and James was instructed not to go anywhere alone, as the French were more bitter against him than ever, and they would shoot him on sight. His every move was watched by the gens d'armes. On Nov. 24, he boarded the Abyssinia and set sail for San Francisco, on which voyage they encountered another terrific storm which nearly sank their ship. It was January 8, 1853 when they finally dropped anchor in San Francisco Bay. Upon leaving the vessel, the captain declined to let James have his trunk unless he would pay $5.00 "hospital fees." As James did not have the money, he was obliged to leave his trunk. He felt very sick and hungry and friendless in the busy city and did not know where to go. Through the promptings of the Spirit, he was led to a man he had known in the Mormon Battalion who told him there were 36 elders in San Francisco, bound on foreign missions. He also met his old friend Jefferson Hunt and had supper with a Captain King. When the Captain heard his story about the trunk, he gave him the money to retrieve it, and also a note to the customs official. When the customs official read the note, he reprimanded the ship's captain and the money was returned. Then began a series of events that proved to James the great and mysterious ways in which the Lord provides for his own. One day, a widow handed him $10.00 which she had been instructed to give him, the donor wishing to remain anonymous. Another time a total stranger pushed a $5.00 gold piece into his hand and dashed away. By the time he had been in San Francisco 18 days, James had had $75.00 handed to him, much of it by total strangers. * * * * * * * * * On the 30th of January, James boarded the Sea Bird bound for San Pedro, en route to Los Angeles from whence he hoped to start for Salt Lake. The elders who were in San Francisco asked James to take some photographs, parcels, and money to their families in Utah. Seven hundred and fifty dollars in gold was put into a belt around his waist, and the rest was in checks. When the boat stopped at Monterey, James was very, very ill with fever. The boat was so crowded that he had to bed down on deck. He became so desperately sick that he lost his reasoning powers, becoming so delirious that later he could only remember removing his coat and vest and lying down on some nail kegs with his baggage all about him. Two days later, he began to regain consciousness, finding himself being cared for by an old Spanish couple. His next thought was for the money bag with which he had been entrusted. He discovered that it was not about his waist, which caused him to panic, but he soon discovered it in the bedclothes, much to his relief. The following day, the ship landed at San Pedro. James was still very ill, and because of his large amount of baggage, he was the last to leave the ship. He dragged his things up to an old adobe warehouse wall, then dropped down on his bedding, exhausted. He lay there until a Spanish couple took pity on him and supplied him with bread and milk. There he spent the night, alone, while the "fever and thirst seemed to be consuming his body." The following day he was able to catch a ride with a teamster going to Los Angeles. His things were dumped out on the sidewalk in the middle of Los Angeles, so he began to look for shelter. He found the home of a former member of the Battalion, where he was allowed to sleep on the floor, but his reception was so cool that he was glad to leave the next morning. That day he discovered that his disease was smallpox, and everyone avoided him like the plague. He at last found the office of a Dr. Jones, where he let himself in and collapsed. The next morning the marshal and the doctor came to escort him to the only place that they had been able to find where he might recuperate. It was an old deserted adobe house which had been overrun with sheep. It was full of sheep manure and was very black from the fires of the sheepherders. The doctor said that it was too bad, but that the sheepy smell and the darkness would prevent his being marked by the disease. James replied that his condition was such that he was compelled to submit to any treatment they saw fit to give. An Indian was left with him as nurse, but he soon ran away in fright, so an old Spaniard, very pock-marked, came to replace him. The following day, a group of ruffians appeared with the intent to rob the "smallpox man", as they had heard about his money belt. However, they had talked about their plan too loudly in the saloon, and the marshal arrived with a posse in time to put them to flight. Then James entrusted his valuables to the marshal until such time as he could get well. Now the Spanish nurse was afraid to stay, for fear the ruffians would take revenge on him, so the next day came an old, pock-marked sailor with a bottle of whiskey, which he proceeded to drink liberally. After three weeks, James had recovered enough to leave his "prison." All his bedding, his suit, boots, hat and everything were piled in the yard and burned. He was told that he owed $10.00 per day for the house and the nurse – $140.00 total. James told them that he would need what little money he had to replace his bedding and clothes, and that it was impossible to pay such a bill. When they learned that he had come into the country as a soldier in the Mexican war, had helped to build the fort that overlooked the town, and had helped to raise the first Stars and Stripes on the western coast, they decided that he would not have to pay the bill – the city of Los Angeles owed him that. With the help of several kind souls, James was able to make his way to San Bernardino, where he stayed with his cousin Alexander Brown. * * * * * * * * * While staying in San Bernardino and getting his strength back, James was called upon to administer to many who were sick. It seemed that many were being possessed of evil spirits. He tells of one incident in particular: "There lived in the town a man named John Brown; he had a Spanish wife and one or two children. One evening, Major Jefferson Hunt's wife called on me to come as quickly as possible, for Mr. Brown's child looked as if it were dying. I went in and found the mother and child in bed together. The little one acted as if it were choking to death and was fighting for breath; it gnashed its teeth and frothed at the mouth. I anointed it with consecrated oil, and as there was no other Elder handy, I administered to the child, when every symptom of its trouble left it immediately, but seized on the mother. She raved, frothed and foamed at the mouth, gnashed her teeth, cramped, and seemed so ill that she could not live five minutes. Sister Hunt anointed her with oil, and I administered to her. She was healed that moment. An Indian woman was sitting there sewing, and the same power that had afflicted the child and its mother took hold of the Indian woman. By this time another sister had stepped in, and she and Sister Hunt raised the Indian woman up, for she had fallen over. . . . She grew worse every minute until I administered to her by laying my hands upon her and praying, rebuking the evil spirits, commanding them in the name of the Lord to come out of her and to depart from her and from that house, and from the houses and homes of the Saints, and to get hence to their own home, and trouble us no more. That moment the evil spirits left, and did not return again. * * * * * * * * * * MISSIONS TO THE INDIANS In April, 1853, James and his cousin John M. Brown joined a party of men headed for Utah. They had a couple of Indian scares on the way, but were able to make it safely. On his way in to Salt Lake City, James found those for whom he had been given money and delivered it to them. On May 22, he arrived in Salt Lake and reported to Pres. Brigham Young on the following day. President Young asked James to speak in Conference in the Tabernacle on June 7th, and then he was honorably released from his mission. His mission had taken three years and eight months and had cost him fifteen hundred dollars. James never regretted the expenditure, as he felt that the experience he had gained was worth far more than the money spent. James had only been home about three months when he received a mission call to labor among the Indians east of Salt Lake City, somewhere in the region of the Green River. He and his companions were to be peacemakers among the Indians, preach civilization to them, and try to prevent further trouble for the settlers. The missionaries were told that some of them might even want to take Indian wives in order to more fully mingle with the Indians and gain their trust. The group of 39 men set out on November 2. They crossed Little Mountain and camped one night at the base of Big Mountain, where their stock was attacked by wolves. After passing through Fort Bridger, they made camp at Smith's Fork of the Green River and built a blockhouse for protection from the winter and from any other enemy that might present itself. They were soon joined by 53 more men, making 92 in all. They now spent most of their time in studying the Shoshone dialect, having help from several Indians who had come to live in the blockhouse, and in guarding their stock from the wolves and Ute Indians. The snow became very deep, covering the tops of the cabins that had been built, and they lost many cattle because of the cold. In March, a number of Shoshone Indians pitched their tents close to the blockhouse. They were very hungry, and the men shared their food with them until they, themselves, ran low. On the 29th, they cleared the blockhouse and had a jolly dance to cheer themselves up. As there were no ladies to join them, they called it the "bachelor's dance." In May they were visited by Orson Hyde, and a group was organized, of which James was a part, to go east to visit the Indian camps. He was given a blessing by Elder Hyde in which he was promised that angels should go before him, the visions of the Lord should be opened to his view, and that no weapon that was raised against him should prosper, along with many other blessings. They traveled through Green River and came to the camp of Washakie, chief of the Shoshones. He inquired about their purpose in being there, and they had a very friendly visit with him. They then proceeded on to another Shoshone camp, where they were not treated so well. A white man was there, stirring up the braves to war, and the chief said that he could not control the situation. James and his party came close to losing their lives, but were spared and soon returned to Green River. There James stayed for a time, for Washakie had promised to meet him there. While there, James acted as an interpreter, for he was nearly the only one around who could understand the Indian dialect. He also assisted the sheriff of the county in dealing with all the lawlessness that was typical of the area at that time, resulting in some encounters that would resemble the old wild-west television movies. Speaking of this period (May 13 to July 8, 1854), James wrote that it had been "one of the most hazardous, soul-trying, disagreeable experiences of my life." * * * * * * * * * James returned to Salt Lake City on July 19 to report his mission to Brigham Young. Although he does not record it in his book, he was married four days later to Lydia Jane Tanner, who bore him seven children. They made their home in Ogden, where James was asked to help in trading with and pacifying the Indians in that area. He also taught school, including a class in the Shoshone language. One of his students was George Washington Hill! James’s grandson Scott Brown would later marry the granddaughter of G.W. Hill (Edith Hill). At the April Conference in 1855, James was called to preside over another mission to the Shoshones. His wife was expecting their first child at the time. James and seven other elders traveled east until they were able to locate Washakie's band. There were about 3,000 Indians in the group, and they had just had a battle with the Crows and the Blackfoot Indians and were moving their entire camp out of reach of retaliation. The elders traveled with them to their new campsite, whereupon they were invited to a council fire. Washakie said, "Now tell us what you have to say. Tell it straight, and no crooked talk, for we do not want any lies, but the truth." They told Washakie that they had a letter for him from Brigham Young, the "Big Mormon Captain." This letter was read to the Indians, indicating that the Indians should settle down and build houses, raise crops, and live peaceably with the white men, and that the Mormons would teach them and help them to do this so that they would not starve when all the hunting game was gone. They also presented a copy of the Book of Mormon to the council, telling them that it told of the Great Spirit's dealings with their forefathers and that it was important for them and their children. Each of the old men in the council examined the book and declared that they had no use for it – they needed powder, lead, sugar, coffee, knives, and blankets. When it came back around the circle to the Chief, he took the book in his hand, examined it, then spoke: "You are all fools; you are blind and cannot see; you have no ears, for you do not hear; you are fools, for you do not understand. These men are our friends. The great Mormon captain has talked with our Father above the clouds, and He told the Mormon captain to send these good men here to tell us the truth and not a lie." He went on to persuade his people that they should do what Pres. Young advised them, and all the men grudgingly approved of his decision. * * * * * * * * * * James S. returned from this mission to his home in Ogden just four days after his wife had given birth to their first child – a girl. Shortly after this, the little family became ill with what they called "cholera morbus." He and his wife believed that if he returned to his mission that they would be healed. Just as he mounted his horse to start, his uncle, Captain James Brown, came along and said, "Jimmie, are you going off and leaving your family sick?" When he received the affirmative answer, the uncle replied, "You are cold-hearted, and I would not do it." James told him that he needed to go in order for his family to be healed, whereupon his uncle said, "Jim you're right. Go ahead and God bless you. Your family shall be healed and not suffer. I will go in and pray for them," which he did. James later learned that they had been healed the same hour that he proceeded on his journey. * * * * * * * * * * James had some rough times with the Indians upon his return to the area which he called Fort Supply. He stayed in that area until December and then started again for Ogden. He was alone and in Indian country, so he did not dare to start a fire. That night, he was awakened by his horse, only to find that they were surrounded by ravenous wolves. He stayed awake the rest of the night, igniting gunpowder to frighten away the wolves. James arrived home on Dec. 20 to find all well, but the supply of food so short that he sold the only respectable suit of clothes that he had in order to buy food. This was the winter of 1855. It had been a "grasshopper year" as well as a year of great drought, and so the winter was miserable. Hundreds of horses and cattle starved to death and many people came close to the same fate. James was able to finish a two-room house for his family and was honorably released by Pres. Young from further missionary work at that time. This release did not last long, however. It always seemed that James barely had time to catch his breath after one mission before being called to another one. * * * * * * * * * * In August of 1856, James was called on a short-term mission to the Deep Creek Indians. He had never been among these Indians before and had never heard their language, but was given the gift of tongues and could understand them and speak to them better than the interpreters hired by the Indian agent. When the agent saw that the Indians could converse with James, he offered to pay him $3.00 per day from the time he left home until he returned if he would help him convey his messages to the Indians. James did not know if his gift would extend into such temporal matters, but it did. The Indians listened attentively to all he had to say to them, including the introduction of the Book of Mormon to them. The Indian agent, Mr. Armstrong, paid James $90.00 for his help, which, upon returning home, James paid to the woman from whom he had purchased a horse on credit to enable him to go on the mission. Whenever he was at home in Ogden, James was employed in settling disputes with the Indians, besides trying to put in a crop on rented land to provide for his family. He was also involved in military maneuvers and scouting when word was received of the approach of Johnston's Army. In May of 1858, the order came from Pres. Young for everybody living north of Utah County to move south and leave their homes prepared for burning. This was to prevent the enemies of the Saints (Johnston's army) from having the satisfaction of destroying their homes. James and his family moved temporarily to Payson, south of Provo until things had been settled with the army. * * * * * * * * * * It was not long after this that James was called on another mission, this time to Iowa. James was able to return to the area of Calhoun, Harrison County, Iowa, where his parents and brothers and sisters had been living ever since he had left them. He had not seen them for about eleven years, during which time his older brother and sister had both died, and the younger ones had grown up beyond his recognizing them. James was brought to the hotel which his family kept and went in, sitting down to be served as any stranger. In his autobiography, James says that no one recognized him until he told them who he was, but in the history of his father Daniel Brown, it states that "James recognized his dear old mother at once but waited for her to respond, as if testing her memory. She was totally unaware that the young man at the table was her long-lost son, but as he slowly withdrew his hat, revealing his most beautiful head of hair, one feature his mother had been particularly fond of, she instantly recognized her boy. 'Oh, Jim, my boy,' she cried. These were about the only words the joyful mother could utter as she embraced her son." This definitely makes the better of the two stories. When James had visited with them a few days and preached in the vicinity, he had a chance to have a private talk with his father. His father expressed his regret at not being able to feel about the gospel as he had once felt, and James admonished him to join in fellowship with the Saints again. In January 1859, James preached his cousin Ira Johnson's funeral sermon, and that same day he baptized six people and confirmed them at his father's home. From that time on, his father seemed changed, saying that it was all he could do to keep out of the water and that he had never felt better in his life. He also said, "James, I want you to preach all the time." James remained in the area until the end of May, at which time his father provided him the needed supplies and equipment for his journey back to Utah. * * * * * * * * * * James was made captain of the company of Saints with which he made the return trip to Salt Lake. At one point, they met with a band of Sioux Indians who were on the warpath, hunting the Omahas and Ponca Indians. James had never been among the Sioux Indians before, nor had he ever studied their language, but again he was given the gift to be able to converse with them in their own tongue. He learned that they were hungry and wanted food, so the wagon train shared what they had, and there was no trouble. They encountered another group of Sioux further on, and once again James was blessed with the gift of tongues and was able to avert trouble, this time arranging for trading between the two groups of people. James arrived in Salt Lake at the end of August 1859, and, before he was even officially released from his mission, he was approached by Apostle Charles C. Rich who told James that he and others were planning a mission to England in the spring. They wanted James to get his affairs in order so that he might accompany them. * * * * * * * * * * MISSION TO GREAT BRITAIN In February of 1860, the call to Great Britain was official. James did not have one dollar to his name upon leaving to fulfill this call. On his journey overland, James was able to stop in Calhoun, Iowa, to visit with his father and family again. His father promised him that if he lived and was able to sell his property, he would accompany James to Utah upon his return from Britain. From Omaha, James took a boat to St. Joseph, Missouri, and from there went by train to New York City, arriving there on June 26. After some sightseeing in that city, his group of 13 elders boarded the steamship Edinburgh on July 14, bound for Great Britain. There were about 300 passengers on board, and the berths (beds) were all taken, so they concluded that their voyage was not going to be a comfortable one. Two weeks later, they landed in Liverpool. James labored first in Birmingham, then in Nottingham, and then in Leicester. His health was not very good much of the time. He was able to spend some time in London and see the sights there, and then he returned to the Nottingham area. In spite of continuing poor health, James was able to baptize a sizeable number of people and continued to preach and visit the people as best he could. The Civil War was now being waged in the U.S. and James heard news of the battles. In April of 1861, James received notice of his release to return home. He felt sorry to leave the Saints in England whom he had grown to love. He set sail on April 23, and dropped anchor in New York Harbor on June 1. The homeward trip was made by way of Niagara Falls, Detroit, Chicago, St. Joseph, and Florence, Nebraska. They arrived in Salt Lake on September 23, 1862, and after October Conference, James hastened to Ogden to find all well with his little family, where now the children numbered three. * * * * * * * * * Shortly after his return from England, Brigham Young was visiting in Ogden, and asked James and his family to move to Salt Lake City in preparation for a local mission to encourage more faithfulness among the Saints. This move was accomplished, and James was soon traveling throughout the Utah Territory preaching and lecturing about his travels and experiences. In 1863, James purchased a lot from Brigham Young and began to build a two-story adobe house. He moved his family into it in 1864, although it was not totally completed. In August, he went into the mountains to get finishing lumber and was accidentally shot by a comrade who mistook him for a bear. The bullet entered his upper thigh, shattering the bone into many fragments. He was carried to the home of his father-in-law Nathan Tanner and the surgeon was called for. The surgeon advised amputation, but James objected as long as there was any hope of saving the limb. James lay there in Wanship until November, when he was moved to his home in Salt Lake City. There he lay for nine months on his back, unable to move from that position. During that time, two operations were performed, taking out parts of shattered bone and the bullet. He was reduced to a skeleton of his former self and became so weak that he could not even lift a sheet of paper between his thumb and finger. After the second operation, however, he began to improve and in a few weeks could get around with a crutch and a cane. James was able to get some temporary employment at the Warm Springs, but when that ended, he did not know quite what to do to provide for his family, as he was not up to heavy labor. After consulting with Brigham Young, he made a couple to trips to prospect for gold – one to California which was fruitless, and another to an area near South Pass on the Sweetwater River. There they could have taken out plenty of gold, but the Indian danger was too great, and they decided to return home. After nursing along his bad leg and having quite a lot of trouble with it, James finally agreed to have his leg amputated when it threatened to take his life. The operation was performed nearly five years after the original accident. Soon he was getting along pretty well with the aid of crutches, and could care for his nursery of ten thousand trees! He also continued to travel and lecture about his experiences, traveling all the way from Paris, Idaho on the north to St. George, Utah on the south. * * * * * * * * * * THREE MORE MISSION CALLS In April of 1872, James was called on a mission to the East Coast. He traveled to New York, visiting his father in Iowa on the way, and while in New York was fitted for an artificial limb, which he used for a time. He had not been in the east very long when Pres. George A. Smith of the First Presidency released him and the other missionaries there because of the antagonism of the people in that area. In September 1875, James was called by Brigham Young to take another mission to the Navajo Indians. He was now 47 years old with only one good leg, but he was willing to give it his best effort. Various people owed James money, amounting to $1,000.00 in all, but he could not seem to collect it in order to prepare for the mission and to provide for his family in his absence. Still he was determined to go. When he left, the family had only ten day's supply of fuel and less than fifty pounds of flour in the house. They did not know where the next food would come from. But he blessed them and told them that if they would live their religion, they would not suffer so much want when he was away as if he had stayed home. James and his companions traveled to Moancoppy, Arizona, where they set up camp for the winter. Shortly after leaving Utah, James received word that his oldest daughter, Lydia Jane, had married Homer Manley Brown. After some exploratory trips and basic preparations had been made for the mission, James returned back to Salt Lake to report to Brigham Young. Pres. Young then gave him a letter designating James as the President of the Mission to the Navajos. Upon returning to Arizona, James presented this letter to some of the other elders, and met with some opposition. He was finally able to get the matter straightened out and have the support of the men. * * * * * * * * * * At one time, James and two other brethren were traveling through the country of the Navajos, the Moquis, and the Zunis. While on this journey, on a tributary of the Rio Grande del Norte, an Indian suddenly stepped out from the edge of the brush, held up his hand, and said: "Stop! Who are you, where do you come from, where are you going, and what is your business in the Navajo country?" After being told that they were Mormons from Utah, the Indian asked them to stop their wagon under a tree and talk to them, for they had heard that the Mormons had a book about their ancestors, and they wanted to know if that was true. Almost before he knew it, James and his companions were surrounded by nearly 300 Indians, including women and children. He procured a copy of the Book of Mormon, told them it was a record of God's dealings with their forefathers, and explained to them how it was revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith by an angel. As he proceeded to tell what was in the Book of Mormon, tears came to the eyes of many in the audience. They told James that they knew it was true because it agreed with the traditions that had been passed down to them. Not long after this, James escorted a group of Navajos on a trip to Salt Lake City so that they could meet Brigham Young and air some of their grievances with him. Pres. Young asked James to travel around a bit, asking for volunteers to accompany him back to Arizona to help in colonizing that part of the country. James lectured sixty-five times and secured about eighty volunteers, and on Feb. 5, 1877, he was again at Moencoppy. Upon his return, he found that although the brethren had been studying the Navajo language, they were not having much success, so James decided to study the language himself. Arrangements were made for him to be taken to Chief Hustelso's camp and left there, with a little 8 year-old girl to wait on him. Here, surrounded by the Navajos, he planned to learn their language. At first, most of the Indians were not friendly to him, but as he learned rapidly to speak to them, he began to experience some kindness at their hands. On June 12, about 350 Navajos gathered to hear him tell of the Book of Mormon. As he began, some of the Indians laughed, while others began to ask questions, which James answered in their own language. But then, he found that he did not know the words for certain things which were needed in the explanation: "I told them that the book was obtained in the east, about so many days journey off. But I could not explain to them that it was in a stone box in the Hill Cumorah and that the writings were on gold plates. . . . One Indian told me the book could not have lasted so long as I said because paper would decay, he knew that. In order to learn the word for hill, I made a small hill of sand, and by comparison with the mountains and much explanation I learned the word for hill. I had noticed, almost up to the plateau above, some slate rock; and after great difficulty I managed to climb and get several pieces of slate down. . . . Then I improvised a stone box, set it in the sand hill, placed the book therein, and thus ascertained how to say stone box in Navajo, and explained that the record was deposited therein. I was almost beaten to tell of gold plates, for I did not know the words to use. At last I bethought me of a brass suspender buckle, and pointed out that what I was referring to was like that, but was not that; and a little piece was worth several silver dollars. Then one Indian recognized what I wanted to say, and gave me the word for gold. . . . I was thus able to explain that the record was on plates of gold; but the way I learned to do it was one of the marvelous experiences of my life, and illustrates the difficulties I had to meet in learning the Navajo language." After spending only 16 days at the Indian camp, James had become able to speak the language and had made great friends of these Indians. * * * * * * * * * * James led another Indian delegation north in August of 1877. This group contained the first Navajo woman to ever visit Salt Lake. They had come to see Pres. Young, but found that great man was on his deathbed. James called to see him just a half-hour before he passed away. Shortly after this, James was informed that it was too much to expect him to return to Arizona, that he had performed a good work, and that he was honorably released. On March 12, the following year, James was sentenced to prison for polygamy, serving for two months and sixteen days. Of this experience, James wrote: "With a firm conviction that plurality of wives was a law of God, I had entered into that relationship honorably with a sincere purpose to follow the right. . . . A term in the penitentiary under those conditions and at that time, while a severe hardship, especially upon one in my state of health, was by no means a moral disgrace, since those who had to endure it were of the better class of men, whose uprightness, honor, integrity and sincerity were beyond question in the community where their lives were an open book." James had married four other women besides Lydia Jane Tanner, one of them being his aunt Mary or Polly Brown. The other three were Rebecca Ann McBride, Eliza Lester, and Elizabeth Mary Clegg. Besides these he was sealed to the deceased sister of Rebecca Ann McBride, Mary Jane McBride. He had a total of 30 children born to these wives (none were born to Mary Brown or, obviously, to the deceased Mary Jane McBride). * * * * * * * * * * On March 30, 1892, Joseph F. Smith asked James how he would like to take another mission to the Society Islands. (There had evidently not been missionaries there since James's return, forty years previous). Although expressing some hesitation because of his health, James replied that "when properly called I was not afraid to go, as I had faith that God would not require of any man more than he would have the ability to do if he were faithful." He began to settle up his affairs and, while on the train to Ogden, he met Apostle Lorenzo Snow, who told him that this mission "should be one of the greatest I had ever performed." He also gave James two five-dollar gold pieces, remarking that he had been a missionary himself and wanted him to have the money. James was now 64 years old and was to preside over the re-opening of the Society Islands Mission. Prior to his departure, his many children and grandchildren gave him a surprise party, sixty-five of them being present. The voyage to Tahiti took the entire month of May, 1892. While in Tahiti, James was able to meet many of the saints who had known him from his previous mission. They still remembered him. The Reorganized LDS Church had sent missionaries to these islands, and in the absence of LDS missionaries, many of the people had become confused, thinking that this was the same church that James had represented. He had the opportunity to let them know the difference, and many were brought back into the truth. He met one lady who was 120 years old. She had been blind for eight years and had insisted that she would live till the servants of God came from Salt Lake City. When told about the missionaries, she exclaimed, "I always said you would come again! The Lord has brought you and has prolonged my life till you came. I rejoice exceedingly at the mercies of the Lord!" She was baptized along with seven others, and then they administered to her for her blindness. After the ordinance, she stated that she could see a little, which was more than she had done for eight years. James (now President Brown) was able to have quite good success in baptizing people into the Church, in spite of continued opposition by the other ministers and priests. In one place, the presiding officer of the Church was a blind man, and he asked James a number of questions to satisfy himself that it was indeed the same elder who had been there forty years before. He said that if James had not been there, he would not have accepted the other young missionaries. At the official welcoming ceremony for the missionaries, an aged man related how the people had prayed that James might come back to them again to teach them the true Gospel. * * * * * * * * * James continued to have trouble with his health throughout this mission, but persevered and was able to accomplish much. Finally it was decided that the time had come for him to return home. He had spent 16 months in the islands and felt that, although it had not been as long as some of his other missions, still it "had been one of the greatest and best I had performed, so far as relates to the work I had been the means of accomplishing in reopening and establish the Society Islands mission." Following his return to Utah, James was invited to California for the Midwinter Exposition as a guest of honor for the part he had played in colonizing that state. He was also invited to the Golden Jubilee Celebration – the 50th anniversary of the discovery of gold at Sutter's mill – as a guest of honor and was treated royally at both of these events. He was also honored in Utah in the parade of the Utah Semi-Centennial Jubilee, as a surviving member of the Mormon Battalion, although he could not help but feel that California seemed to know better how to honor the early pioneers. Following this, James spent much time writing the story of his most adventurous life. He passed away March 25, 1902, in Salt Lake City. We, as his posterity, are so glad that he put these wonderful experiences on paper, so that we may know him better and that we might better appreciate the great sacrifices that he and others made for the Gospel.  

Lydia Jane Brown by Edith Larsen Baker

Colaborador: marmiehill Created: 1 year ago Updated: 1 year ago

Lydia Jane Brown was born August 10, 1855, in Salt Lake City, Utah. She was the first child of James Stephens Brown and Lydia Jane Tanner. We do not know much about her childhood except that she probably saw little of her father. He was continually being called on missions throughout his life and, when he was in Utah, he traveled a great deal, preaching and lecturing about his experiences. He was very stern with his children when he was at home, and they were afraid of him. Lydia's mother died when Lydia was only seventeen, but she undoubtedly reflected the gentleness, love, and consideration which she had seen in her mother. Lydia was married to Homer Manley Brown on November 22, 1875 in the Endowment House, and she became the mother to fourteen children – seven boys and seven girls. One of these boys, Hugh, would become an apostle, and a grandson, Victor L. Brown, would become the Presiding Bishop of the Church. Her son Scott would serve as Stake President over the Boise, Idaho Stake and as a patriarch. The children give the majority of the credit for their faithfulness to their beloved mother, Lydia. She seemed to have a vision of what each could become, and continually praised and encouraged them to fulfill their God-given potential. Although her husband was not active in the Church for the greatest part of his life, Lydia made sure that her children would not follow suit. When the Salt Lake Temple was dedicated, she attended one of the sessions. Hugh remembered going with her, and she probably took as many of the children as were old enough to go. Lydia's son Scott recalled one incident while they were still living in Salt Lake. Lydia and her sister-in-law Emmerette had gone out in a buggy making Relief Society calls. Three of Lydia's children were accompanying them – little Roumelia who was about two years old, and the twin babies, Verona and Winona. The women were holding the twins, while little Roumelia was sitting at their feet with her back to the dashboard. They were driving near the train tracks, when suddenly something startled their horse. The horse began to run and Lydia pulled back hard on the reins, trying to calm her, but instead of quieting, the horse began to kick. She knocked out the dashboard and crushed the back of little Roumelia's head. They turned around as soon as they could, and returned home, sending for the doctor. Roumelia was in such terrible condition that the doctor declared that it was hopeless. He said that even if she did live, which he doubted, she would never be mentally balanced. Scott was just big enough to see over the high foot-board of the bed, and he watched as his grandfather James S. Brown anointed Roumelia's head with oil and administered to her. Her wounds healed perfectly and she lived to become the mother of eight lovely children. According to Scott, she became one of the cleverest and most gifted of all the girls in the family in dramatics, in public speaking, and in all manner of civic and Church activities. So, there were no lasting effects at all from that devastating experience. In 1898, Lydia's husband decided that they should move to Alberta, Canada. He took the two oldest children with him to prepare the way, leaving Lydia to manage the ranch with the help of the younger children, the oldest of whom was Hugh – 14 years old. Lydia and the children joined Homer Manley in Canada the following year, and what a trial that year must have been to her. She left her large, comfortable home in Salt Lake City for a two-room log cabin, one room of which was soon occupied by Homer's brother and his family. She had 13 children to care for, and the winter was severe, besides the fact that her husband was ill for most of the winter. Here in Spring Coulee, her last child was born in 1901. While they were living in Spring Coulee, many of the Church leaders stopped overnight or at least for a visit, for it was directly on the way to Cardston where Conferences were held. On one occasion, Francis M. Lyman paid the family a visit, after which Hugh remembered that he and his mother went to the Conference. On the way home in the buggy, Lydia told Hugh of an experience that she had had while listening to Elder Lyman's address. She said, "As I looked upon him, he ceased to be Francis M. Lyman and became Hugh B. Brown, and I saw you as occupying the position he then held. I know, as I know I live, that that's what is going to happen to you. If you will just behave yourself and do what is right, the time will come when you will be called into the Council of the Twelve." Obviously, she must have been living very close to the Spirit to have an experience like that. Lydia and Homer moved from Spring Coulee to Cardston where they lived until about 1927, when they returned to Salt Lake City. She passed away in June of 1935, just two months short of her 80th birthday. Lydia's first daughter Minnie had died when she was only 15 years old, but the remaining thirteen children were at her bedside when she died. Sometime later, Hugh wrote of Lydia: "No better saint ever lived on earth. Her life of sacrifice and service, of sorrow and disappointment, and her passing without being rewarded for a life time of devotion to duty, proves one of two things – either that there is no God and consequently no justice, or else, and this I believe and know to be the case, there is a life beyond the grave where a just Judge will reward the righteous and where we will be able to understand the why of many of the mysteries of life. "One of the most perplexing of these is – why must the few real saints who come to earth be subjected to so many indignities, be deprived of most of the material blessings which are showered with almost reckless prodigality on the wicked and the ungodly? . . . There must be another world in which real merit is rewarded and the violation of law followed by the penalty prescribed for sin. . . . "I believe, then, that Mother's life of loving devotion to duty has earned for her a crown of glory which the richest queen of history will envy – that there we shall see real justice done . . . and when Truth finally wields the scepter, it will be hers forever and forever, and all who have loved and served her will have joy and eternal bliss for their reward." Although we cannot help but wish that we knew more about this remarkable woman, the posterity which she raised and influenced so profoundly speaks loudly of her character. Perhaps in that other world which Hugh spoke of, we can come to know her better.

James Stephens Brown by Edith Larsen Baker

Colaborador: marmiehill Created: 1 year ago Updated: 1 year ago

JAMES STEPHENS BROWN If the life of James Stephens Brown were to be summed up with just one phrase, it would have to be "Missionary Work." Nearly his entire life was spent on one mission or another--twice in Tahiti, once in Great Britain, once to the Eastern United States, and numerous missions to the Navajo, Sioux, Shoshone, and other Indian tribes. If his life were to be characterized by another word, it would have to be "Adventure," for within the pages of his life are found the stuff of which legends are made. Leaving his family behind to travel west with a new religious group, nearly losing his life in the Mormon Battalion, being part of the first discovery of gold at Sutter's Fort in California, being attacked by a wild bear, shipwrecked at sea, encounters with island natives that included nearly being burned alive, nearly dying of smallpox, bringing the Book of Mormon to the famous Chief Washakie, being attacked by wolves, losing a leg because of an accidental shooting--all these and more are the true adventures (that sometimes seem "stranger than fiction") of this "Giant of the Lord." * * * * * * * * * * * * * EARLY LIFE James S. was born on Independence Day, July 4, 1828 in North Carolina to Daniel Brown and Mary (Molly) Emerson Williams. The family were pioneers in Illinois and they had no churches or schoolhouses closer than ten miles from their home. But instead of learning their "abc's", they learned to hunt, fish, train horses, make their own farm equipment, braid their own whips, raise their own honey, grow their own sugar, and they even learned to shake from the ague and burn with the fever. In a few years, people began to settle more closely to the Browns, and the people soon heard that a new religious group had been driven out of Missouri into Illinois. It was not long before a traveling Elder by the name of Jacob Pfoutz was preaching in the vicinity, and converted James's aunt and uncle. James decided to go and hear the preacher preach, more out of curiosity than anything. Of this occasion James wrote: "As to myself, it seemed that I had not only heard it thunder, but I had seen the lightning and felt it through every fibre of my system, from the crown of my head to the soles of my feet . . . . Notwithstanding the fact that I knew the Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, were looked upon as filth, in fact as even worse than rubbish, that they had been called the very off-scourings of the earth, that they were regarded as deserving to be put to death, yet from that very day I received their doctrine in or by the spirit." James was at this time twelve years old. Sixty years later, in writing his autobiography, James declared that even though he had "passed through mobbings, robbings, fines and penalties; have been banished and once sentenced to death; Paul-like have fought with wild beasts, have been shipwrecked and almost starved; have famished on thirsty deserts; have had the scalping-knife wielded over my head while the Indian war-whoop saluted my ears and the savage warrior danced with tomahawk in hand. . . . ; have laid in dungeons for my religion's sake--thanks be to God that I yet live and bear a faithful testimony of the truth and spirit that possessed my soul from that first Gospel sermon I ever heard." His parents and oldest brother and sister were baptized into the new religion, but James did not feel himself worthy to be baptized yet, although he believed with all his heart. He thought that he should have some wonderful vision or manifestation before he would be worthy to be baptized. His former playmates, however, took up a crusade against him because of his new belief, and they "baptized" him plenty of times in the mill pond--they called it baptizing but James called it drowning. Then they would mockingly "lay hands" on him in the name of Beelzebub and pull his hair and spit on him. When he finally got tired of all their bad treatment, he went after them with his strong jack-knife. After that they left him alone. In July, 1844, news reached the Browns that the Prophet Joseph and his brother Hyrum had been assassinated, and that the Saints were being driven out of Nauvoo. The family held a council to decide whether they ought to gather with the Saints or not, and it was decided that they could not afford to go at this time. James was still not baptized, but when asked his opinion he declared that where the Mormons went he would go, and where they died he would die. He thought perhaps he could go as a teamster for someone. Although his father ordered him to keep quiet, saying that he would thrash him if he talked of leaving home, James was determined to go, even if it meant living among the Indians. So, his father relented a little and said that James, his father, his Uncle Alexander Stephens, and two of his maiden aunts would go out to Iowa with the Saints and prepare the way for the others to follow. When the time came for departure, James was very sick with the ague, but he would not let that stop him. His father was sure that he would not last long on the journey before wanting to return home, but James knew that he would rather die than be left behind. The second day out, he began to be very ill, and he prayed to the Lord and was healed. They reached Nauvoo in May of 1846, to witness the last of the city's inhabitants in the process of leaving. They thrilled at seeing the temple, but were saddened at the necessity of the Saints leaving it. They continued west to the Grand River in Iowa, where they put in a large garden and then James's father returned to bring the rest of the family. Then came the rumors of the U.S. war with Mexico and that the government wanted volunteers from the Mormons. Although James was still formally unbaptized, he felt a desire to enlist after listening to Brigham Young, but he also felt a responsibility to look after his father's affairs as he had promised. It was at this time that his very tardy baptism took place, in the Grand River. James was 17 years old at this time. He was confirmed by Elders Willard Richards and Ezra T. Benson in the presence of Brigham Young and others of the Twelve Apostles. The following day, when seeking counsel from Elder Benson, James was told that his promptings to join the Battalion were right, that he would be blessed and that his father would find no fault with him, and that he would never be sorry for enlisting. Accordingly, James and his uncle Alexander Stephens handed in their names and were enrolled in the historic Mormon Battalion. Every word of Elder Benson's promise was fulfilled. * * * * * * * * * MORMON BATTALION James and his companions left to join the larger group of the Battalion at the Missouri River. They were ill prepared, partly because they had been ill-advised that they could obtain provisions along the way. They did not even have a blanket to wrap themselves in. At the Missouri River camp, they did obtain one blanket each, but no other equipment. James always remembered the address given to the men by Brigham Young, just prior to their departure, wherein he promised them that not one of them should fall by the hand of an enemy, and that their names should be held in honorable remembrance forever. Then they set off on their journey of more than two thousand miles. At Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, they received one tent to each six men, which gave them some protection, and they drew their first pay with which they purchased some clothing and shoes, sending the rest home to their families. They again resumed their march, enduring storms, hunger, thirst, and sickness, the full story of which may be read in James's autobiography. The infamous camp doctor by the name of Sanderson can not go without mention here. There was much sickness, produced by frequent changes in the drinking water and by poorly-cooked food. The commander had ordered the sick out of the wagons and directed that before they could ride they must be reported by the doctor as unable to walk, and must take a dose of the doctor's drugs from his rusty spoon. The doctor was very unkind, and his medicine was even worse if that were possible. The men were determined not to respond to sick call if they could possibly walk. Soon after they passed through Santa Fe, the rations were reduced to one-third the amount allowed by law. Some of the men were called upon to substitute for mules and carry heavy loads of ammunition, and in this condition they must now wade the rivers, sometimes waist deep. Of one crossing, James wrote, "Our comrades took our muskets over the point while we lifted at the wagons. As the water was waist deep, when the men would stoop to lift, it would wet our clothing very nearly to the armpits; our shoes also were filled with sand. Wet and cold, almost chilled, we continued our march through deep sands, pushing and pulling at the wagons till our clothing dried on our bodies, our shoes became so dry and hard that walking was very painful and difficult, and our feet became raw. If this had been all, we might have had less reason to complain; but when an irritated officer. . . swore at us as if we were brutes, when we were already burdened almost beyond endurance, it is no wonder there was an impulsive desire to retaliate. For my own part, my feelings never were so outraged, and the desire for revenge never ran so high and wild as then. . . . As we tramped on through the sands, we became so weak it was almost impossible to keep our ankles from striking together as we walked, and our hard and dry shoe-tops would cut our ankles till the blood came." * * * * * * * * * * After crossing the Rio Del Norte, the officers despaired of being able to keep the men alive, as they were desperately short of food. Then they ran entirely out of water, coming one night to a place called Dry Lake. Here I again quote from James's own words: "That was the hardest day for me that came in the experience of the whole journey. I had been run down so low with a severe attack of dysentery that I could travel no longer and laid down. My thirst was intense, and it did not seem possible that I could live till morning. . . . Men went by, looking like death, their mouth black, their eyes sunken till it was difficult to recognize them. Some eyes had a staring glare, which looked as if the monster death were close at hand. Yet the men staggered on, their feet hitting each other, *** for tat, as one was dragged past the other. The hopes of these men were greater than mine, for I had ceased to march. . . . Just when my hopes were flickering as does a candle when the wick has all but burned out, there came to my ears the sound as of the tinkling of a tin can. Then my uncle Alexander Stephens came in sight. He had . . . found a dripping of water as it seeped from a crevice in the rock. He had quenched his thirst and filled his canteen. When (he) came up he handed me his canteen. . . . I did not think myself able to rise to my feet, but. . . by a final effort we reached Dry Lake camp by halting at short intervals along the four miles we had to travel. Wretched, wretched indeed, was the condition of the command that night. . . Next morning, at the doctor's call, . . . two men sat me upon the ground and held me up till my time came. . . Dr. Sanderson called out, "What is the matter with you?" (He then declared) "I've a d__d great mind not to report you sick." I answered that it did not matter to me whether he entered me on the sick list or not, for I could not walk. . . . Then he ordered the steward to give me a dose of the castor oil and laudanum, stating the quantity. The steward, William Spencer, said, "Isn't it a rather heavy dose?" to which the doctor responded with a curse, telling him to do as he was ordered. At that the dose was poured into a teacup, filling it half full. It was given to me, the steward saying in a low tone of voice, "If you do not throw it up it will kill you." I was assisted back to the company's wagon and soon vomited the medicine. . . . For four days I lay in a dull stupor, when that phase of the disease was checked and a very high fever set in. My sufferings were so terrible that some of my messmates came into the tent, anointed me with oil, then administered to me; and although burning with a high fever till it seemed that I could not live, I was instantly healed, so that when they took their hands off, the fever was entirely gone and I was wet with perspiration. From that time, I began to gather strength." * * * * * * * * * * The bedraggled group pushed on through what is now Arizona to what was then known as the Ninety-five Mile Desert which lay between them and the Gila River. They were in deplorable condition. Many were the men that lay down by the wayside without a hope that they would live to reach water. When they finally reached the river, their clothes were so tattered and torn that they could hardly cover their nakedness. Down the river a few miles, they came upon a Pima Indian village. Seeing their starved condition, these Indians (who were an agricultural people) cut up a lot of pumpkins, boiled them, and handed them out to the men, for which the men were grateful. After leaving this settlement, they came upon the Maricopa Indians, where they traded brass buttons for food. One brass button was worth more than a five dollar gold piece. Again they pushed on, crossing the Colorado River with great difficulty and marching for southern California. They had to dig for water, and what they found was not much good. Again they came very close to dying of starvation and thirst, but finally reached Los Angeles, California. A couple of times they were put on alert that there would be a battle with the Mexicans, but it always turned out to be a false alarm. In January of 1847, they passed over the battlefield where General Kearney had defeated the Mexicans, and they remembered the promise of Brigham Young that not one of them should fall by the hand of an enemy. James knew that only God had inspired that prophecy, and that it was because of God's goodness that they had been able to reach their destination. * * * * * * * * * * GOLD On the 16th of July, 1847, the term of enlistment for the Battalion was up. Some of the men reenlisted, but James was among those who set out to meet up with the Saints in the Salt Lake Valley. They decided that the best route was by way of Sutter's Fort near what is now Sacramento. When they reached that place, they decided to remain there in the employ of Captain Sutter for a time, so that they could earn money and provisions to finish their journey. It was while helping to build the grist mill for the fort that James S. Brown happened to be with James Marshall when he discovered the first gold in California on January 24, 1848. James S. Brown took the first scales of gold that Marshall had found, tested them with his teeth, then with the hammer, and finally tested them in a very hot fire, after which he assuredly proclaimed that it was indeed gold! Although the world gives credit for the gold find to Capt. John Sutter and James Marshall, it was members of the Battalion that did the hard labor that discovered the metal. James never received a penny from Sutter for the one hundred days that he worked for him, as Sutter declared that his business was ruined by the gold find. James was able, however, to make some money out of the gold he found, and so he and 36 others outfitted themselves with wagons and provisions for the trip to Salt Lake in June of 1848. He was not sorry to leave the gold fields, for he knew that there were more important things in life than gold. The men found that they would have to make their own road, as one did not exist in the direction they wanted to go. They had some encounters with the Indians along the way, but nothing serious. It was September when the weary travelers came in sight of Ogden, which had been settled by the uncle of James S., Capt. James Brown. They continued on to Salt Lake City, it having been more than two years since they had been with the main body of the Saints. They had marched over 4,000 miles and were glad to be "home." * * * * * * * * * MISSION TO TAHITI James S. Brown endured the difficult winter of 1849 along with the rest of the Saints in the Valley. Many suffered from frostbite, and James lost every nail on his toes because of frostbite. Then, at the following harvest season when the Saints were about to harvest their first good crop, the "crickets" attacked. James witnessed the miracle of the sea gulls, and states that that kind of bird had not been seen before by the people in the valley. Shortly after this experience, James S. Brown, now 21 years old, was ordained a Seventy and called by Brigham Young to go on a mission to the Society Islands. In answer to President Young's call, James said, "I am an illiterate youth, cannot read or write, and I do not know what good I can do; but if it is the will of the Lord that I should go, and you say so, I will do the best that I can." President Young then said to young James, "It is the will of the Lord that you go, and I say go; I am not afraid to risk you. And I promise you in the name of the Lord God of Israel that if you go, you will be blessed and do good, and be an honor to yourself and to the Church and kingdom of God. Although men will seek your life, you shall be spared and return to the bosom of the Church in safety." A few days later, starting out on the journey to California (where he would get a boat for the islands), James passed the home of Dr. Willard Richards, counselor to Pres. Brigham Young. Brother Richards told him that while he was in the islands, "men will seek your life, and to all human appearance there will be no possible escape: then look unto God, and His angels shall draw near unto you, and you shall be delivered to return home to this people." This promise was very much like the one which Pres. Young had given him. In company with Jefferson Hunt of the Mormon Battalion, James set out on a difficult and eventful journey, through what is now Las Vegas to Los Angeles, then north to San Francisco. They crossed the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the winter time! For a complete account of this journey, see the autobiography. From San Francisco on April 20, 1850, James boarded a steamer for the island of Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean. * * * * * * * * * James was very seasick on the voyage, not being able to keep anything down for seven days. They finally reached Tahiti on May 24, having been at sea for over a month. Brother Addison Pratt was to labor in the islands with James. He had been to Tahiti before and could speak the language. These missionaries found that the Catholic priest and the Protestant ministers in the area were doing all they could to prevent people from listening to them. Also government officials were suspicious of them. James spent most of his time trying to learn the language, which at first seemed difficult but began to come easier before long. The food of the islands was very different from that which James was used to. Shortly after his arrival, food became very scarce and they were reduced to eating sea-snails and large bugs that were found on the edge of salt-water pools. James thought that a dish of these bugs, with their legs sticking out in all directions, was a strange sight for a white man, but when a man had gone long enough without food, he thought that they became quite tempting. He also learned to eat something that resembled young snakes, and jelly-fish, which was eaten raw and resembled the white of an egg. Wild boar was another "delicacy"(?), which he found hard and tough. One day, James decided to chase a boar, and it led him so far away from water that he thought that he should die of thirst and heat. On returning, he came to a coconut tree, which he tried in vain to climb. He sat down in the shade of the tree in despair. After a bit of a rest, he took aim with his gun and shot down two coconuts, but then could not find a way to open them in order to drink the milk. So he started down the mountain with them and finally came to an old man who was cutting coconuts. This man hurried down the tree, opened the nut, and James could finally drink. James wished him a prophet's reward, and learned from the experience never to chase boars again. * * * * * * * * * * Because the French government, which controlled the Society Islands, felt that they had had some trouble with the previous LDS missionaries, James and Brother Addison Pratt were confined to one small area of the island until the governor could ascertain whether or not to give his permission for them to travel and proselyte at will. Finally permission was granted and the real missionary work could begin. James had spent most of his time in seclusion studying the language, and had done so well that the natives were moved to declare that "The Lord helps the Mormon missionaries learn our language, for in three months they speak it better than other foreigners do in five years." Although James was glad to be able to travel and preach, he found the weather very rainy and the people not very receptive. They were friendly until they found out that he was a Mormon missionary-- then they would become very cool. Some of the people were cautious because they had had bad experiences with some of the Protestant ministers in the area. On one occasion, James was called to see a young woman by the name of Maui, who had been under medical treatment by the Protestant ministers for four months. She was very thin--just skin and bones, and she was so weak that she could not stand alone. She said that she had heard of the doctrine that the Mormons preached, and she knew it was true because it was all in the Bible. She was a very respected scholar in the area, and the people were amazed that she had called for the Mormons! She asked for baptism, so, after interviewing her, James baptized her, having to hold her upright in the water while he said the prayer. Upon coming up out of the water, she exclaimed, "I am healed of the Lord," and she walked out of the water and home without assistance. This young lady was James's first convert, and it aroused so much excitement among the people that the ministers sent the police to arrest James. He, however, was protected by the Lord and was able to keep out of their hands. The ministers then began to warn the people against the missionaries, saying that if they even spoke to them, they would not be permitted to partake of the sacrament in their church, and if they went to hear them preach, they would be excommunicated. Then these ministers hatched a plot whereby they thought they could trap James into wrongdoing and thereby prove to the people that the Mormons were no good. They sent two pretty young women, all dressed up and perfumed, to James with the instructions to pretend interest in the Church and then to seduce him into immoral behavior with them. These young ladies went directly from the minister's house to James's house, not telling anyone else of the plan. Their plan failed miserably, however, because it was not long after they had entered that James knew by the spirit of discernment exactly what they were up to. He told them that he knew their plans, saying, "Now if you wish anything of that kind, you must return to your masters who sent you, and tell them that if they wish you to be accommodated in that way, they will have to do it themselves, for Mormon Elders are not guilty of such practices, though they have proofs that the ministers are." They then confessed that what he said was true, and were amazed that he could have known what they were planning to do. * * * * * * * * * * James did not have much success with the islanders at this time, because of the strong persecution, but he did baptize a few. In July of 1851, James traveled to the island of Anaa. As they were landing, a man came bounding through the water, coming straight up to James and handed him a little rag in which were wrapped five pearls. He said, "Here! I have seen you before. You have come to be our president, for you have been shown to me in a dream. Welcome, welcome to our land!" Then he carried James to shore on his back. The people on shore had prepared a feast of welcome. James soon found out that there were about 900 members of the Church on Anaa, and that the Catholic priests were building four churches, but no one would go to them. This was indeed a change! As the man had foretold, James was soon appointed to preside on Anaa, and the other missionaries left him to go to other islands. He was alone in his work on the islands quite a lot, as it was not a rule then as it is now that a missionary must have a companion at all times. On one occasion, soon after his arrival in Anaa, he was questioned about California and the gold fields; also about his birthplace and his residence in Salt Lake City. He took a sheet of paper and sketched a rough outline of the gold fields. One of the natives seemed greatly interested and asked for the sketch, which was given to him. He soon returned with a large sheet of drawing paper and asked James to draw a map on a larger scale showing his birthplace, Salt Lake City, and the gold fields. In the course of the discussion, he told the people that he had been in California because he went there with the Mormon Battalion in the service of the United States during the war with Mexico. Little did he realize that he was mapping out the outlines of a foundation for a wicked and false charge to be brought against him by the Catholic priest. He would soon be charged with being a skilled civil engineer and a graduate from some United States army school, and trying to cause a rebellion in the islands. In the meantime, James was having very good success among the people. They wanted him to help them organize schools, which he did. He was promptly threatened by the Catholic priest that he was not to interfere with THEIR schools (which he had no intention of doing), and that if he did, they would have him tried before the governor. Soon after this, the people prepared a great feast in honor of the missionaries, and after the food was all spread out, a spokesman paid the following honors to James in the Tahitian language: "James, as a token of our great love and respect for you, the servant of God, we the people of Otapipi, Anaa, have collected of all the varieties of food that our land affords, and a few articles of use. Here is a pig, there is a fish, and fowl, and here are coconuts. This is meat and drink for us, and all that is produced in our land. We wish you to accept it from all of us as your true friends, and we wish you to eat and be full. Be our president and teacher in the Gospel, and a teacher of our children; for we are glad to have you come to our land as a father and guide. Our hearts are full of gladness that God has sent you to our land, that we may be taught to love the true and living God, for we have always been in the dark, and did not know there was a true and living God to love and worship. Now we have no more to say. Amen." This was representative of several such addresses that were given on other similar occasions. The following Sunday, James baptized 35 people, the Sunday after that another 19, and the next Sunday 25 more. The island people called him "Iatobo", the Tahitian word for "James" as a sign of their love for him. Even the non-members were fond of him. About this time, James had a remarkable dream. He dreamed that God appeared and told him to go to a field and replant where the birds and squirrels had destroyed the grain, so he went to work and the replanting was soon done. Then he was shown a field of wheat in the spring that was about eight inches high and growing nicely. Just then a herd of cattle came in, breaking down the fence and trampling everything they came to. He heard a voice say, "Drive them out," and as he attempted to do so, a fiery red bull made a charge for him, so that it seemed that he would be gored to death. But, as the animal lowered its head, James seized it by both horns and bore its head to the earth. The animal turned a somersault, both horns being sunk to the head in the earth, and the bull's neck being broken. Then a black and white bull came up in the same fierce manner, and it met with the same fate. Then the herd of cattle cleared away, but only after much damage had been done. When he awoke from this dream, James felt that there would be more trouble ahead for him. He knew that one of the priests that had caused him so much trouble had fiery red hair, and another was freckle-faced, seeming to indicate the two bulls. * * * * * * * * * * Young James was often called upon to serve as both physician and dentist to the people of the islands, as they had no knowledge of these things. He was once called to see a man who had been suffering nearly a whole year with a swelling in his hip and thigh. No one in the village dared to lance it, but after getting the permission of all the relatives (so that he would not be held responsible for any resulting problems), James performed the operation with his penknife, draining off at least six pints of the most offensive matter. After this case, he was called to help in similar things such as swollen jaws, boils, carbuncles, etc. He extracted many teeth to relieve toothache, sometimes using a rusty rail or any kind of an old iron to punch the tooth out. His best dentist tool was his rifle bullet mold, using both ends for forceps. * * * * * * * * * * On one occasion, seven very rough characters came in to a sacrament meeting, sitting in the back and making loud, rude remarks about the young ladies of the choir. When they partook of the sacrament they said that when the meeting was out they would administer the sacrament in a very different manner to that in which the Mormons did it. After the meeting, they came up to the young ladies and made wicked propositions to them, then went out still boasting of what they would do at nightfall. But their threats were never carried out, for in a very short time three of them were stricken with severe cramps and were dead before the next morning. The other four had symptoms of the same thing, and were also dead before the week was up. * * * * * * * * * * Soon after this, James was instrumental in making peace between two groups of islanders who were about to war with each other. He was amazed that these people could be so fierce and war-like, and yet at the first sound of a church bell they would become meek and quiet, so great was their reverence for religious services. After this experience, James inquired of the people about their traditions, superstitions, and methods of warfare. He learned that it had been the case in the past, when two war parties approached each other, that they would dance, boasting and threatening, until within a few feet of each other, when they would then leap at each other in hand-to-hand conflict. Their women would follow behind the men, and as each man incapacitated his enemy, the woman would finish him off by beheading him and throwing the head into her large basket. When the war was over, each family would bury their captured heads close to their home. The number of heads constituted the social standing of the family, so that the family with the most skulls would be chief or king. James also learned that the islanders had a tradition that whatever gave them pain, they should eat. So, if they were wounded by a sharp stone or by a sliver, they would extract it and eat it, saying, "You are my enemy, you never shall hurt me more." James thought that this strange practice might have had something to do with the origin of cannibalism. In inquiring into these practices, James spoke with one lady who was very old. In answer to questions about cannibalism, she said, "I have followed my fathers, brothers, husband and sons in battle, and we ate our victims as we would eat pork or fish." When asked if she had eaten white man's flesh, and if so how it tasted, she replied, "Yes. The white man's flesh is hard, tough and salty, while the flesh of the native is sweet and tender." When asked if she did not feel remorse after having done these things, she said, "Not a bit, it was in our days of heathendom; but now, since the Gospel has come to us, we have no desire for anything of that kind, though formerly we took pleasure in our practices, for our minds were very dark." * * * * * * * * * * * It was shortly after this that the trouble with the Catholic priest which had been foreshadowed did occur. The priest had bribed one of the governors and had gotten a decision against the missionaries, even though the great majority of the people on the island were in favor of the missionaries. A French warship landed on the island, and James was arrested. He was informed that he was to appear before the governor's aide-de-camp at 9:00 o'clock, and if he did not come willingly, they had orders to drag him there like a dog. He accompanied them readily and without a word. He was read a long list of charges and answered "not guilty" to each one. He was charged with subverting the laws of the French protectorate, interfering with government schools, hoisting the American flag, enrolling 3,000 men for the American government who would be controlled by the Mormon Church, arming the men, being a civil engineer, ordering the people to demolish some of the towns and rebuild with better fortifications, being a graduate of a U.S. military school, having great power with the native people, and being capable of doing much mischief in the country. All the charges were without the slightest foundation, except that he had much influence with the people. James was sure he could prove himself innocent, until he was informed that it had been decided that he must go to the main island of Tahiti for trial. James had no way of transporting his witnesses to that place, so he knew that his case was pretty much hopeless. The people were incensed. About five hundred gathered on the shore as he was put on the boat, declaring that where their missionary went they would go, too, and saying, "It is the Catholic priests who have done this with their lies." The people were restrained by the soldiers, and the boat set sail. Hardly out of the harbor, the boat ran into what seemed to be hundreds or even thousands of whales. The boat was in terrible danger of being smashed to pieces by these great animals, and James felt that even with all his experiences with Indians, hungry wolves, grizzly bears, rattlesnakes, wild buffalos stampeding, etc., he had never been quite so frightened as he was of the whales. Luckily, they passed through unharmed. On the warship, James was treated very badly by the French soldiers, which did not make him think too highly of the "most stylish, the proudest, the most fashionable people in the world." Upon reflecting on his actions while on the island of Anaa, James could not see that he had done anything against any person or against any law, so he felt that he could trust in the Lord that all would work out all right. In Papeete, Tahiti, James was tried, much as Jesus was tried, on trumped up charges, without witnesses and in secret. When he saw how things were going, he "arose and asked the court what right it had to try me with closed doors, not even allowing me the opportunity to defend myself. I told them I was an American citizen, and claimed my rights as such under existing treaties and international laws. I quoted law that I had never read or heard mentioned, for it was given to me of the Lord in the hour that I had need." Although at the time he made this declaration, the authorities felt ashamed, still it was eventually used as one more evidence that he was a government man for the U.S. Following the trial, the U.S. Consul in Tahiti intervened in behalf of James, and arranged that he could leave on the next boat. This he did, going to the island of Raivavai, four hundred miles southeast of Tahiti and outside of the French protectorate. * * * * * * * * * * On the island of Raivavai, James found Addison Pratt, who promptly sailed away to another island, leaving James to preside over the Church there. There were only eight Church members on this very small island, with the rest of the inhabitants (383 in number) opposed to the Church. James found these people to be some of the most savage and rudest that he had met--scarcely removed from cannibalism. They did not hesitate to tell of their experiences in eating human flesh and sacrificing infant children to their idols. James began traveling around this island and preaching. He baptized a few, and that caused much excitement. A council was called to adopt ways by which the islanders could get rid of Mormonism and the "American plant," as they called him. Some proposed to fasten the "plant" on a log and tow it out to sea, where the sharks would eat it, while others suggested burning or making a roast of him. James continued his preaching, and was able to baptize 20 more into the Church, but the Protestant ministers continued to inflame the people against him. In May of 1852 (James was now nearly 24 years old), a meeting was called to decide definitely what to do with the Mormon and his followers. The young braves came armed with muskets, shouting and yelling, saying they were going to have a fat roast for tomorrow. They kindled fires and began shouting, singing, and dancing. They kept up a continual howl all night long, while James and his friends held prayer and testimony meeting, never sleeping a moment the whole night. The next day was spent in continued feasting and rowdiness. In the afternoon, two large ruffians came to bring James before the council. Suddenly, it was brought to James's mind the promises that had been made to him by Pres. Brigham Young and Willard Richards, that though men should seek his life, yet he should return in safety to the bosom of the Saints. The Spirit told him that he had not forfeited those promises, and all his fear was driven away. Without hesitation he arose and walked out to the beach where the people were assembled. One faithful Mormon man named Rivae and his wife with an eight month-old baby in her arms stepped forward. This brave brother said, "If you burn this man," pointing to James, "you burn me first." Then the heroic wife stepped forward, holding her babe at arm's length and shouted, "I am a Mormon and this baby is a Mormon. . . . and you will have to burn all of us, or Mormonism will grow again." Rivae and his wife were ordered to stand back, and James was confronted by Tabate, the spokesman. He said, "Iatobo, you have caused the people of our land to sin by having them to travel more than a Sabbath day's journey on the Sabbath. You have also taught the people that God is a material God, and that is not lawful to teach in our land." He then said, "Look there at that fire. It is made to consume the flesh off of your bones." At that moment the Spirit of the Lord rested mightily upon James, and he declared, "In the name of Israel's God, I defy ten of your best men, yea, the host of you, for I serve that God who delivered Daniel from the den of lions, and the three Hebrew children from the fiery furnace!" He was absolutely cool and unshaken. After this stirring speech, the natives began to quarrel and fight with one another until the whole assemblage were fighting. There was no more talk of burning him, and he was left to do his work on the island. Some two months later as James was traveling alone he happened upon one of the old men who had been a party to the decision to burn him. When the man saw James, he turned and ran. James overtook him and demanded to know why he ran from him. He answered, "Your God is a God of power and I was afraid to meet His servant." James asked how he knew that his God was a God of power and why they had not burned him as they had decided to do. He answered, "At the moment that you defied us, there was a brilliant light or pillar of fire bore down close over your head. It was a bright as the sun. We remembered reading in the Bible about Elijah calling fire down from heaven so that it consumed the captains and their fifties. . . . The young men did not see the light. They were going to burn you, and we tried to stop them. So we got into a fight. Now we all know that you are a true servant of God and we do not like to meet you out of fear." Although the islanders did not bother James any more, they did not seem to be any more disposed to learn the Gospel either. After spending seven months alone on the island of Raivavai without any news from the outside world, James learned that it was sometimes several years between boats arriving at their island. Finally he did receive a letter from Elder Grouard in Tahiti, informing him that the U.S. Consulate had received permission for James to return to Tahiti in order for him to be allowed to return to the U.S. He was being released from his mission. * * * * * * * * * * En route to Tahiti, James made a stop at the island of Rapia. The people there had never seen a Mormon, but had heard the most ridiculous stories about them. They had heard that Mormons had cloven feet and shells on their backs and were some kind of mongrel between man and beast. When they discovered that James was just like any other man, and mild mannered to boot, he was finally permitted to go up to the village. He attended one of the church services on the island and asked permission to speak. After saying only a few words, he received an order from the presiding priest to leave the island. Some of the people differed with the priest, however, and he was invited to a banquet at the governor's. Here he had an experience that was very strange to him. A young girl about sixteen years old came in, tore the roasted chicken to pieces and proceeded to hold the meat up to his mouth. He drew back. Someone said, "Let her wash, he thinks she is dirty." So she washed, and tried again. Still he did not eat, so they thought he did not like her dark color, and called a lighter-skinned girl. Still he refused the "courtesy." They tried to explain to James that this was their custom--that the women always fed the men and then ate the scraps that were left over. James did not like it and preferred to be called a heathen. While on this island, James noted some gourds and watermelons growing. He had not seen anything like this on any other island that he had visited, and asked how they came there. He was informed that their forefathers had brought them from their fatherland in the east. They knew only that it was a big land with lots of food, great forest and big rivers that were full of fish. James concluded that these island peoples were probably descended from those of Book of Mormon times who sailed away in the ships of Hagoth. * * * * * * * * * * On October 27, they sailed again for Tahiti, encountering a very severe storm. They finally landed in Papeete, Tahiti and James was instructed not to go anywhere alone, as the French were more bitter against him than ever, and they would shoot him on sight. His every move was watched by the gens d'armes. On Nov. 24, he boarded the Abyssinia and set sail for San Francisco, on which voyage they encountered another terrific storm which nearly sank their ship. It was January 8, 1853 when they finally dropped anchor in San Francisco Bay. Upon leaving the vessel, the captain declined to let James have his trunk unless he would pay $5.00 "hospital fees." As James did not have the money, he was obliged to leave his trunk. He felt very sick and hungry and friendless in the busy city, and did not know where to go. Through the promptings of the Spirit, he was led to a man he had known in the Mormon Battalion who told him there were 36 elders in San Francisco, bound on foreign missions. He also met his old friend Jefferson Hunt and had supper with a Captain King. When the Captain heard his story about the trunk, he gave him the money to retrieve it, and also a note to the customs official. When the customs official read the note, he reprimanded the ship's captain and the money was returned. Then began a series of events that proved to James the great and mysterious ways in which the Lord provides for his own. One day, a widow handed him $10.00 which she had been instructed to give him, the donor wishing to remain anonymous. Another time a total stranger pushed a $5.00 gold piece into his hand and dashed away. By the time he had been in San Francisco 18 days, James had had $75.00 handed to him, much of it by total strangers. * * * * * * * * * On the 30th of January, James boarded the Sea Bird bound for San Pedro, enroute to Los Angeles from whence he hoped to start for Salt Lake. The elders who were in San Francisco asked James to take some photographs, parcels, and money to their families in Utah. Seven hundred and fifty dollars in gold was put into a belt around his waist, and the rest was in checks. When the boat stopped at Monterey, James was very, very ill with fever. The boat was so crowded that he had to bed down on deck. He became so desperately sick that he lost his reasoning powers, becoming so delirious that later he could only remember removing his coat and vest and lying down on some nail kegs with his baggage all about him. Two days later, he began to regain consciousness, finding himself being cared for by an old Spanish couple. His next thought was for the money bag with which he had been entrusted. He discovered that it was not about his waist, which caused him to panic, but he soon discovered it in the bedclothes, much to his relief. The following day, the ship landed at San Pedro. James was still very ill, and because of his large amount of baggage, he was the last to leave the ship. He dragged his things up to an old adobe warehouse wall, then dropped down on his bedding, exhausted. He lay there until a Spanish couple took pity on him and supplied him with bread and milk. There he spent the night, alone, while the "fever and thirst seemed to be consuming his body." The following day he was able to catch a ride with a teamster going to Los Angeles. His things were dumped out on the sidewalk in the middle of Los Angeles, so he began to look for shelter. He found the home of a former member of the Battalion, where he was allowed to sleep on the floor, but his reception was so cool that he was glad to leave the next morning. That day he discovered that his disease was smallpox, and everyone avoided him like the plague. He at last found the office of a Dr. Jones, where he let himself in and collapsed. The next morning the marshal and the doctor came to escort him to the only place that they had been able to find where he might recuperate. It was an old deserted adobe house which had been overrun with sheep. It was full of sheep manure and was very black from the fires of the sheepherders. The doctor said that it was too bad, but that the sheepy smell and the darkness would prevent his being marked by the disease. James replied that his condition was such that he was compelled to submit to any treatment they saw fit to give. An Indian was left with him as nurse, but he soon ran away in fright, so an old Spaniard, very pock-marked, came to replace him. The following day, a group of ruffians appeared with the intent to rob the "smallpox man", as they had heard about his money belt. However, they had talked about their plan too loudly in the saloon, and the marshal arrived with a posse in time to put them to flight. Then James entrusted his valuables to the marshal until such time as he could get well. Now the Spanish nurse was afraid to stay, for fear the ruffians would take revenge on him, so the next day came an old, pock-marked sailor with a bottle of whiskey, which he proceeded to drink liberally. After three weeks, James had recovered enough to leave his "prison." All his bedding, his suit, boots, hat and everything were piled in the yard and burned. He was told that he owed $10.00 per day for the house and the nurse--$140.00 total. James told them that he would need what little money he had to replace his bedding and clothes, and that it was impossible to pay such a bill. When they learned that he had come into the country as a soldier in the Mexican war, had helped to built the fort that overlooked the town, and had helped to raise the first Stars and Stripes on the western coast, they decided that he would not have to pay the bill--the city of Los Angeles owed him that. With the help of several kind souls, James was able to make his way to San Bernardino, where he stayed with his cousin, Alexander Brown. * * * * * * * * * While staying in San Bernardino and getting his strength back, James was called upon to administer to many who were sick. It seemed that many were being possessed of evil spirits. He tells of one incident in particular: "There lived in the town a man named John Brown; he had a Spanish wife and one or two children. One evening, Major Jefferson Hunt's wife called on me to come as quickly as possible, for Mr. Brown's child looked as if it were dying. I went in, and found the mother and child in bed together. The little one acted as if it were choking to death, and was fighting for breath; it gnashed its teeth and frothed at the mouth. I anointed it with consecrated oil, and as there was no other Elder handy, I administered to the child, when every symptom of its trouble left it immediately, but seized on the mother. She raved, frothed and foamed at the mouth, gnashed her teeth, cramped, and seemed so ill that she could not live five minutes. Sister Hunt anointed her with oil, and I administered to her. She was healed that moment. An Indian woman was sitting there sewing, and the same power that had afflicted the child and its mother took hold of the Indian woman. By this time another sister had stepped in, and she and Sister Hunt raised the Indian woman up, for she had fallen over. . . . She grew worse every minute, until I administered to her, by laying my hands upon her and praying, rebuking the evil spirits, commanding them in the name of the Lord to come out of her and to depart from her and from that house, and from the houses and homes of the Saints, and to get hence to their own home, and trouble us no more. That moment the evil spirits left, and did not return again. * * * * * * * * * * MISSIONS TO THE INDIANS In April, 1853, James and his cousin John M. Brown joined a party of men headed for Utah. They had a couple of Indian scares on the way, but were able to make it safely. On his way in to Salt Lake City, James found those whom he had been given money for and delivered it to them. On May 22, he arrived in Salt Lake and reported to Pres. Brigham Young on the following day. President Young asked James to speak in Conference in the Tabernacle on June 7th, and then he was honorably released from his mission. His mission had taken three years and eight months and had cost him fifteen hundred dollars. James never regretted the expenditure, as he felt that the experience he had gained was worth far more than the money spent. James had only been home about three months when he received a mission call to labor among the Indians east of Salt Lake City, somewhere in the region of the Green River. He and his companions were to be peacemakers among the Indians, preach civilization to them, and try to prevent further trouble for the settlers. The missionaries were told that some of them might even want to take Indian wives in order to more fully mingle with the Indians and gain their trust. The group of 39 men set out on November 2. They crossed Little Mountain and camped one night at the base of Big Mountain, where their stock was attacked by wolves. After passing through Fort Bridger, they made camp at Smith's Fork of the Green River and built a blockhouse for protection from the winter and from any other enemy that might present itself. They were soon joined by 53 more men, making 92 in all. They now spent most of their time in studying the Shoshone dialect, having help from several Indians who had come to live in the blockhouse, and in guarding their stock from the wolves and Ute Indians. The snow became very deep, covering the tops of the cabins that had been built, and they lost many cattle because of the cold. In March, a number of Shoshone Indians pitched their tents close to the blockhouse. They were very hungry, and the men shared their food with them until they, themselves, ran low. On the 29th, they cleared the blockhouse and had a jolly dance to cheer themselves up. As there were no ladies to join them, they called it the "bachelor's dance." In May they were visited by Orson Hyde, and a group was organized, of which James was a part, to go east to visit the Indian camps. He was given a blessing by Elder Hyde, in which he was promised that angels should go before him, the visions of the Lord should be opened to his view, and that no weapon that was raised against him should prosper, along with many other blessings. They traveled through Green River and came to the camp of Washakie, chief of the Shoshones. He inquired about their purpose in being there, and they had a very friendly visit with him. They then proceeded on to another Shoshone camp, where they were not treated so well. A white man was there, stirring up the braves to war, and the chief said that he could not control the situation. James and his party came close to losing their lives, but were spared and soon returned to Green River. There James stayed for a time, for Washakie had promised to meet him there. While there, James acted as an interpreter, for he was nearly the only one around who could understand the Indian dialect. He also assisted the sheriff of the county in dealing with all the lawlessness that was typical of the area at that time, resulting in some encounters that would resemble the old wild west television movies. Speaking of this period (May 13 to July 8, 1854), James wrote that it had been "one of the most hazardous, soultrying, disagreeable experiences of my life." * * * * * * * * * James returned to Salt Lake City on July 19 to report his mission to Brigham Young. Although he does not record it in his book, he was married four days later to Lydia Jane Tanner, who bore him seven children. They made their home in Ogden, where James was asked to help in trading with and pacifying the Indians in that area. He also taught school, including a class in the Shoshone language. One of his students was George Washington Hill! At the April Conference in 1855, James was called to preside over another mission to the Shoshones. His wife was expecting their first child at the time. James and seven other Elders traveled east until they were able to locate Washakie's band. There were about 3,000 Indians in the group, and they had just had a battle with the Crows and the Blackfoot Indians, and were moving their entire camp out of reach of retaliation. The Elders traveled with them to their new campsite, whereupon they were invited to a council fire. Washakie said, "Now tell us what you have to say. Tell it straight, and no crooked talk, for we do not want any lies, but the truth." They told Washakie that they had a letter for him from Brigham Young, the "Big Mormon Captain." This letter was read to the Indians, indicating that the Indians should settle down and build houses, raise crops, and live peaceably with the white men, and that the Mormons would teach them and help them to do this, so that they would not starve when all the hunting game was gone. They also presented a copy of the Book of Mormon to the council, telling them that it told of the Great Spirit's dealings with their forefathers and that it was important for them and their children. Each of the old men in the council examined the book and declared that they had no use for it--they needed powder, lead, sugar, coffee, knives, and blankets. When it came back around the circle to the Chief, he took the book in his hand, examined it, then spoke: "You are all fools; you are blind and cannot see; you have no ears, for you do not hear; you are fools, for you do not understand. These men are our friends. The great Mormon captain has talked with our Father above the clouds, and He told the Mormon captain to send these good men here to tell us the truth and not a lie." He went on to persuade his people that they should do what Pres. Young advised them, and all the men grudgingly approved of his decision. * * * * * * * * * * James S. returned from this mission to his home in Ogden, just four days after his wife had given birth to their first child--a girl. Shortly after this, the little family became ill with what they called "cholera morbus." He and his wife believed that if he returned to his mission that they would be healed. Just as he mounted his horse to start, his uncle, Captain James Brown, came along and said, "Jimmie, are you going off and leaving your family sick?" When he received the affirmative answer, the uncle replied, "You are cold-hearted, and I would not do it." James told him that he needed to go in order for his family to be healed, whereupon his uncle said, "Jim you're right. Go ahead and God bless you. Your family shall be healed, and not suffer. I will go in and pray for them," which he did. James later learned that they had been healed the same hour that he proceeded on his journey. * * * * * * * * * * James had some rough times with the Indians upon his return to the area which he called Fort Supply. He stayed in that area until December, and then started again for Ogden. He was alone and in Indian country, so he did not dare to start a fire. That night, he was awakened by his horse, to find that they were surrounded by ravenous wolves. He stayed awake the rest of the night, igniting gunpowder to frighten away the wolves. James arrived home on Dec. 20, to find all well, but the supply of food so short that he sold the only respectable suit of clothes that he had in order to buy food. This was the winter of 1855--it had been a "grasshopper year" as well as a year of great drought, and so the winter was miserable. Hundreds of horses and cattle starved to death, and many people came close to the same fate. James was able to finish a two-room house for his family and was honorably released by Pres. Young from further missionary work at that time. This release did not last long, however. It always seemed that James barely had time to catch his breath after one mission before being called to another one. * * * * * * * * * * In August of 1856, James was called on a short-term mission to the Deep Creek Indians. He had never been among these Indians before and had never heard their language, but was given the gift of tongues and could understand them and speak to them better than the interpreters hired by the Indian agent. When the agent saw that the Indians could converse with James, he offered to pay him $3.00 per day from the time he left home until he returned if he would help him convey his messages to the Indians. James did not know if his gift would extend into such temporal matters, but it did. The Indians listened attentively to all he had to say to them, including the introduction of the Book of Mormon to them. The Indian agent, Mr. Armstrong, paid James $90.00 for his help, which, upon returning home, James paid to the woman from whom he had purchased a horse on credit to enable him to go on the mission. Whenever he was at home in Ogden, James was employed in settling disputes with the Indians, besides trying to put in a crop on rented land to provide for his family. He was also involved in military maneuvers and scouting when word was received of the approach of Johnston's Army. In May of 1858, the order came from Pres. Young for everybody living north of Utah County to move south and leave their homes prepared for burning. This was to prevent the enemies of the Saints (Johnston's army) from having the satisfaction of destroying their homes. James and his family moved temporarily to Payson, south of Provo, until things had been settled with the army. * * * * * * * * * * It was not long after this that James was called on another mission--this time to Iowa. James was able to return to the area of Calhoun, Harrison County, Iowa, where his parents and brothers and sisters had been living ever since he had left them. He had not seen them for about eleven years, during which time his older brother and sister had both died, and the younger ones had grown up beyond his recognizing them. James was brought to the hotel which his family kept, and went in, sitting down to be served as any stranger. In his autobiography, James says that no one recognized him until he told them who he was, but in the history of his father, Daniel Brown, it states that "James recognized his dear old mother at once but waited for her to respond, as if testing her memory. She was totally unaware that the young man at the table was her long lost son, but as he slowly withdrew his hat, revealing his most beautiful head of hair, one feature his mother had been particularly fond of, she instantly recognized her boy. 'Oh, Jim, my boy,' these were about the only words the joyful mother could utter as she embraced her son." This definitely makes the better of the two stories. When James had visited with them a few days and preached in the vicinity, he had a chance to have a private talk with his father. His father expressed his regret at not being able to feel about the gospel as he had once felt, and James admonished him to join in fellowship with the Saints again. In January, 1859, James preached his cousin Ira Johnson's funeral sermon, and that same day baptized six people and confirmed them at his father's home. From that time on, his father seemed changed, saying that it was all he could do to keep out of the water and that he had never felt better in his life. He also said, "James, I want you to preach all the time." James remained in the area until the end of May, at which time his father provided him the needed supplies and equipment for his journey back to Utah. * * * * * * * * * * James was made captain of the company of Saints with which he made the return trip to Salt Lake. At one point, they met with a band of Sioux Indians who were on the warpath, hunting the Omahas and Ponca Indians. James had never been among the Sioux Indians before, nor had he ever studied their language, but again he was given the gift to be able to converse with them in their own tongue. He learned that they were hungry and wanted food, so the wagon train shared what they had, and there was no trouble. They encountered another group of Sioux further on, and once again James was blessed with the gift of tongues and was able to avert trouble, this time arranging for trading between the two groups of people. James arrived in Salt Lake the end of August, 1859, and before he was even officially released from his mission, he was approached by Apostle Charles C. Rich who told James that he and others were planning a mission to England in the spring. They wanted James to get his affairs in order so that he might accompany them. * * * * * * * * * * MISSION TO GREAT BRITAIN In February of 1860, the call to Great Britain was official. James did not have one dollar to his name upon leaving to fulfill this call. On his journey overland, James was able to stop in Calhoun, Iowa, to visit with his father and family again. His father promised him that if he lived and was able to sell his property, he would accompany James to Utah upon his return from Britain. From Omaha, James took a boat to St. Joseph, Missouri, and from there went by train to New York City, arriving there on June 26. After some sightseeing in that city, his group of 13 Elders boarded the steamship Edinburgh on July 14, bound for Great Britain. There were about 300 passengers on board, and the berths (beds) were all taken, so they concluded that their voyage was not going to be a comfortable one. Two weeks later, they landed in Liverpool. James labored first in Birmingham, then in Nottingham, and then in Leicester. His health was not very good much of the time. He was able to spend some time in London and see the sights there, and then returned to the Nottingham area. In spite of continuing poor health, James was able to baptize a sizeable number of people and continued to preach and visit the people as best he could. The Civil War was now being waged in the U.S., and James heard news of the battles. In April of 1861, James received notice of his release to return home. He felt sorry to leave the Saints in England whom he had grown to love. He set sail on April 23, and dropped anchor in New York Harbor on June 1. The homeward trip was made by way of Niagara Falls, Detroit, Chicago, St. Joseph, and Florence, Nebraska. They arrived in Salt Lake on September 23, 1862, and after October Conference, James hastened to Ogden to find all well with his little family, where now the children numbered three. * * * * * * * * * Shortly after his return from England, Brigham Young was visiting in Ogden, and asked James and his family to move to Salt Lake City in preparation for a local mission to encourage more faithfulness among the Saints. This move was accomplished, and James was soon traveling throughout the Utah Territory preaching and lecturing about his travels and experiences. In 1863, James purchased a lot from Brigham Young and began to build a two-story adobe house. He moved his family into it in 1864, although it was not totally completed. In August, he went into the mountains to get finishing lumber and was accidentally shot by a comrade who mistook him for a bear. The bullet entered his upper thigh, shattering the bone into many fragments. He was carried to the home of his father-in-law Nathan Tanner and the surgeon [was] called for. The surgeon advised amputation, but James objected as long as there was any hope of saving the limb. James laid there in Wanship until November, when he was moved to his home in Salt Lake City. There he laid for nine months on his back, unable to move from that position. During that time, two operations were performed, taking out parts of shattered bone and the bullet. He was reduced to a skeleton of his former self and became so weak that he could not even lift a sheet of paper between his thumb and finger. After the second operation, however, he began to improve and in a few weeks could get around with a crutch and a cane. James was able to get some temporary employment at the Warm Springs, but when that ended, he did not know quite what to do to provide for his family, as he was not up to heavy labor. After consulting with Brigham Young, he made a couple to trips to prospect for gold--one to California which was fruitless, and another to an area near South Pass on the Sweetwater River. There they could have taken out plenty of gold, but the Indian danger was too great, and they decided to return home. After nursing along his bad leg and having quite a lot of trouble with it, James finally agreed to have his leg amputated when it threatened to take his life. The operation was performed nearly five years after the original accident. Soon he was getting along pretty well with the aid of crutches, and could care for his nursery of ten thousand trees! He also continued to travel and lecture about his experiences, traveling all the way from Paris, Idaho on the north to St. George, Utah on the south. * * * * * * * * * * THREE MORE MISSION CALLS In April of 1872, James was called on a mission to the East Coast. He traveled to New York, visiting his father in Iowa on the way, and while in New York was fitted for an artificial limb, which he used for a time. He had not been in the east very long, when Pres. George A. Smith of the First Presidency released him and the other missionaries there because of the antagonism of the people in that area. In September, 1875, James was called by Brigham Young to take another mission to the Navajo Indians. He was now 47 years old with only one good leg, but he was willing to give it his best effort. Various people owed James money, amounting to $1,000.00 in all, but he could not seem to collect it in order to prepare for the mission and to provide for his family in his absence. Still he was determined to go. When he left, the family had only ten day's supply of fuel and less than fifty pounds of flour in the house, and did not know where the next would come from. But he blessed them and told them that if they would live their religion, they would not suffer so much want when he was away as if he had stayed home. James and his companions traveled to Moancoppy, Arizona, where they set up camp for the winter. Shortly after leaving Utah, James received word that his oldest daughter, Lydia Jane, had married Homer Manley Brown. After some exploratory trips and basic preparations had been made for the mission, James returned back to Salt Lake to report to Brigham Young. Pres. Young then gave him a letter designating James as the President of the Mission to the Navajos. Upon returning to Arizona, James presented this letter to some of the other Elders, and met with some opposition. He was finally able to get the matter straightened out and have the support of the men. * * * * * * * * * * At one time, James and two other brethren were traveling through the country of the Navajos, the Moquis, and the Zunis. While on this journey, on a tributary of the Rio Grande del Norte, an Indian suddenly stepped out from the edge of the brush, held up his hand, and said: "Stop! Who are you, where do you come from, where are you going, and what is your business in the Navajo country?" After being told that they were Mormons from Utah, the Indian asked them to stop their wagon under a tree and talk to them, for they had heard that the Mormons had a book about their ancestors, and they wanted to know if that was true. Almost before he knew it, James and his companions were surrounded by nearly 300 Indians, including women and children. He procured a copy of the Book of Mormon, told them it was a record of God's dealings with their forefathers, and explained to them how it was revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith by an angel. As he proceeded to tell what was in the Book of Mormon, tears came to the eyes of many in the audience. They told James that they knew it was true because it agreed with the traditions that had been passed down to them. Not long after this, James escorted a group of Navajos on a trip to Salt Lake City, so that they could meet Brigham Young and air some of their grievances with him. Pres. Young asked James to travel around a bit, asking for volunteers to accompany him back to Arizona, to help in colonizing that part of the country. James lectured sixty-five times and secured about eighty volunteers, and on Feb. 5, 1877 he was again at Moencoppy. Upon his return, he found that although the brethren had been studying the Navajo language, they were not having much success, so James decided to study the language himself. Arrangements were made for him to be taken to Chief Hustelso's camp and left there, with a little 8 year-old girl to wait on him. Here, surrounded by the Navajos, he planned to learn their language. At first, most of the Indians were not friendly to him, but as he learned rapidly to speak to them, he began to experience some kindness at their hands. On June 12, about 350 Navajos gathered to hear him tell of the Book of Mormon. As he began, some of the Indians laughed, while others began to ask questions, which James answered in their own language. But then, he found that he did not know the words for certain things which were needed in the explanation: "I told them that the book was obtained in the east, about so many days journey off. But I could not explain to them that it was in a stone box in the Hill Cumorah, and that the writings were on gold plates. . . One Indian told me the book could not have lasted so long as I said because paper would decay, he knew that. In order to learn the word for hill, I made a small hill of sand, and by comparison with the mountains and much explanation I learned the word for hill. I had noticed, almost up to the plateau above, some slate rock; and after great difficulty I managed to climb and get several pieces of slate down. . . Then I improvised a stone box, set it in the sand hill, placed the book therein, and thus ascertained how to say stone box, in Navajo, and explained that the record was deposited therein. I was almost beaten to tell of gold plates, for I did not know the words to use. At last I bethought me of a brass suspender buckle, and pointed out that what I was referring to was like that, but was not that; and a little piece was worth several silver dollars. Then one Indian recognized what I wanted to say, and gave me the word for gold. . . I was thus able to explain that the record was on plates of gold; but the way I learned to do it was one of the marvelous experiences of my life, and illustrates the difficulties I had to meet in learning the Navajo language." After spending only 16 days at the Indian camp, James had become able to speak the language and had made great friends of these Indians. * * * * * * * * * * James led another Indian delegation north in August of 1877. This group contained the first Navajo woman to ever visit Salt Lake. They had come to see Pres. Young, but found that great man was on his deathbed. James called to see him just a half-hour before he passed away. Shortly after this, James was informed that it was too much to expect him to return to Arizona, that he had performed a good work, and that he was honorably released. On March 12, the following year, James was sentenced to prison for polygamy, serving for two months and sixteen days. Of this experience, James wrote: "With a firm conviction that plurality of wives was a law of God, I had entered into that relationship honorably with a sincere purpose to follow the right. . . A term in the penitentiary under those conditions and at that time, while a severe hardship, especially upon one in my state of health, was by no means a moral disgrace, since those who had to endure it were of the better class of men, whose uprightness, honor, integrity and sincerity were beyond question in the community where their lives were an open book." James had married four other women besides Lydia Jane Tanner, one of them being his aunt Mary or Polly Brown. The other three were Rebecca Ann McBride, Eliza Lester, and Elizabeth Mary Clegg. Besides these he was sealed to the deceased sister of Rebecca Ann McBride, Mary Jane McBride. He had a total of 30 children born to these wives (none were born to Mary Brown, or, obviously, to the deceased Mary Jane McBride). * * * * * * * * * * On March 30, 1892, Joseph F. Smith asked James how he would like to take another mission to the Society Islands (there had evidently not been missionaries there since James's return, forty years previous). Although expressing some hesitation because of his health, James replied that "when properly called I was not afraid to go, as I had faith that God would not require of any man more than he wold have the ability to do if he were faithful." He began to settle up his affairs, and while on the train to Ogden, he met Apostle Lorenzo Snow, who told him that this mission "should be one of the greatest I had ever performed." He also gave James two five-dollar gold pieces, remarking that he had been a missionary himself and wanted him to have the money. James was now 64 years old, and was to preside over the re-opening of the Society Islands Mission. Prior to his departure, his many children and grandchildren gave him a surprise party, sixtyfive of them being present. The voyage to Tahiti took the entire month of May, 1892. While in Tahiti, James was able to meet many of the saints who had known him from his previous mission. They still remembered him. The Reorganized LDS Church had sent missionaries to these islands, and in the absence of LDS missionaries, many of the people had become confused, thinking that this was the same church that James had represented. He had the opportunity to let them know the difference, and many were brought back into the truth. He met one lady who was 120 years old. She had been blind for eight years, and had insisted that she would live till the servants of God came from Salt Lake City. When told about the missionaries, she exclaimed, "I always said you would come again! The Lord has brought you, and has prolonged my life till you came. I rejoice exceedingly at the mercies of the Lord!" She was baptized, along with seven others, and then they administered to her for her blindness. After the ordinance, she stated that she could see a little, which was more than she had done for eight years. James (now President Brown) was able to have quite good success in baptizing people into the Church, in spite of continued opposition by the other ministers and priests. In one place, the presiding officer of the Church was a blind man, and he asked James a number of questions to satisfy himself that it was indeed the same Elder who had been there forty years before. He said that if James had not been there, he would not have accepted the other young missionaries. At the official welcoming ceremony for the missionaries, an aged man related how the people had prayed that James might come back to them again to teach them the true Gospel. * * * * * * * * * James continued to have trouble with his health throughout this mission, but persevered and was able to accomplish much. Finally it was decided that the time had come for him to return home. He had spent 16 months in the islands, and felt that although it had not been as long as some of his other missions, still it "had been one of the greatest and best I had performed, so far as relates to the work I had been the means of accomplishing in reopening and establish the Society Islands mission." Following his return to Utah, James was invited to California for the Midwinter Exposition, as a guest of honor for the part he had played in colonizing that state. He was again invited to the Golden Jubilee Celebration--the 50th anniversary of the discovery of gold at Sutter's mill, as a guest of honor, and was treated royally at both of these events. He was also honored in Utah in the parade of the Utah Semi-Centennial Jubilee, as a surviving member of the Mormon Battalion, although he could not help but feel that California seemed to know better how to honor the early pioneers. Following this, James spent much time writing the story of his most adventurous life. We, as his posterity, are so glad that he put these wonderful experiences on paper, so that we may know him better and that we might better appreciate the great sacrifices that he and others made for the Gospel.

James Stephens Brown

Colaborador: marmiehill Created: 1 year ago Updated: 1 year ago

JAMES STEPHENS BROWN (same info but edited down to only 5 pgs. The book is so great I would recommend it as a great read) If the life of James Stephens Brown were to be summed up with just one phrase, it would have to be "Missionary Work." Nearly his entire life was spent on one mission or another--twice in Tahiti, once in Great Britain, once to the Eastern United States, and numerous missions to the Navajo, Sioux, Shoshone, and other Indian tribes. If his life were to be characterized by another word, it would have to be "Adventure," for within the pages of his life are found the stuff of which legends are made. Leaving his family behind to travel west with a new religious group, nearly losing his life in the Mormon Battalion, being part of the first discovery of gold at Sutter's Fort in California, being attacked by a wild bear, shipwrecked at sea, encounters with island natives that included nearly being burned alive, nearly dying of smallpox, bringing the Book of Mormon to the famous Chief Washakie, being attacked by wolves, losing a leg because of an accidental shooting--all these and more are the true adventures (that sometimes seem "stranger than fiction") of this "Giant of the Lord." James S. was born on Independence Day, July 4, 1828 in North Carolina to Daniel Brown and Mary (Molly) Emerson Williams. The family were pioneers in Illinois and they had no churches or schoolhouses closer than ten miles from their home. But instead of learning their "abc's", they learned to hunt, fish, train horses, make their own farm equipment, braid their own whips, raise their own honey, grow their own sugar, and they even learned to shake from the ague and burn with the fever. On the 16th of July, 1847, the term of enlistment for the Battalion was up. Some of the men reenlisted, but James was among those who set out to meet up with the Saints in the Salt Lake Valley. They decided that the best route was by way of Sutter's Fort near what is now Sacramento. When they reached that place, they decided to remain there in the employ of Captain Sutter for a time, so that they could earn money and provisions to finish their journey. It was while helping to build the grist mill for the fort that James S. Brown happened to be with James Marshall when he discovered the first gold in California on January 24, 1848. James S. Brown took the first scales of gold that Marshall had found, tested them with his teeth, then with the hammer, and finally tested them in a very hot fire, after which he assuredly proclaimed that it was indeed gold. James never received a penny from Sutter for the one hundred days that he worked for him, as Sutter declared that his business was ruined by the gold find. James was able, however, to make some money out of the gold he found, and so he and 36 others outfitted themselves with wagons and provisions for the trip to Salt Lake in June of 1848. He was not sorry to leave the gold fields, for he knew that there were more important things in life than gold. James S. Brown endured the difficult winter of 1849 along with the rest of the Saints in the Valley. Many suffered from frostbite, and James lost every nail on his toes because of frostbite. Then, at the following harvest season when the Saints were about to harvest their first good crop, the "crickets" attacked. James witnessed the miracle of the sea gulls, and states that that kind of bird had not been seen before by the people in the valley. Shortly after this experience, James S. Brown, now 21 years old, was ordained a Seventy and called by Brigham Young to go on a mission to the Society Islands. In answer to President Young's call, James said, "I am an illiterate youth, cannot read or write, and I do not know what good I can do; but if it is the will of the Lord that I should go, and you say so, I will do the best that I can." President Young then said to young James, "It is the will of the Lord that you go, and I say go; I am not afraid to risk you. And I promise you in the name of the Lord God of Israel that if you go, you will be blessed and do good, and be an honor to yourself and to the Church and kingdom of God. Although men will seek your life, you shall be spared and return to the bosom of the Church in safety." A few days later, starting out on the journey to California (where he would get a boat for the islands). The food of the islands was very different from that which James was used to. Shortly after his arrival, food became very scarce and they were reduced to eating sea-snails and large bugs that were found on the edge of salt-water pools. James thought that a dish of these bugs, with their legs sticking out in all directions, was a strange sight for a white man, but when a man had gone long enough without food, he thought that they became quite tempting. On one occasion, James was called to see a young woman by the name of Maui, who had been under medical treatment by the Protestant ministers for four months. She was very thin--just skin and bones, and she was so weak that she could not stand alone. She said that she had heard of the doctrine that the Mormons preached, and she knew it was true because it was all in the Bible. She was a very respected scholar in the area, and the people were amazed that she had called for the Mormons! She asked for baptism, so, after interviewing her, James baptized her, having to hold her upright in the water while he said the prayer. Upon coming up out of the water, she exclaimed, "I am healed of the Lord," and she walked out of the water and home without assistance. This young lady was James's first convert, and it aroused so much excitement among the people that the ministers sent the police to arrest James. He, however, was protected by the Lord and was able to keep out of their hands. The ministers then began to warn the people against the missionaries, saying that if they even spoke to them, they would not be permitted to partake of the sacrament in their church, and if they went to hear them preach, they would be excommunicated. Then these ministers hatched a plot whereby they thought they could trap James into wrongdoing and thereby prove to the people that the Mormons were no good. They sent two pretty young women, all dressed up and perfumed, to James with the instructions to pretend interest in the Church and then to seduce him into immoral behavior with them. These young ladies went directly from the minister's house to James's house, not telling anyone else of the plan. Their plan failed miserably, however, because it was not long after they had entered that James knew by the spirit of discernment exactly what they were up to. He told them that he knew their plans, saying, "Now if you wish anything of that kind, you must return to your masters who sent you, and tell them that if they wish you to be accommodated in that way, they will have to do it themselves, for Mormon Elders are not guilty of such practices, though they have proofs that the ministers are." They then confessed that what he said was true, and were amazed that he could have known what they were planning to do. The island people called him "Iatobo", the Tahitian word for "James" as a sign of their love for him. Even the non-members were fond of him. Young James was often called upon to serve as both physician and dentist to the people of the islands, as they had no knowledge of these things. James performed the operation with his penknife. He extracted many teeth to relieve toothache, sometimes using a rusty rail or any kind of an old iron to punch the tooth out. His best dentist tool was his rifle bullet mold, using both ends for forceps. Once while travelling on a boat between island they were hardly out of the harbor, the boat ran into what seemed to be hundreds or even thousands of whales. The boat was in terrible danger of being smashed to pieces by these great animals, and James felt that even with all his experiences with Indians, hungry wolves, grizzly bears, rattlesnakes, wild buffalos stampeding, etc., he had never been quite so frightened as he was of the whales. Luckily, they passed through unharmed. On the island of Raivavai, James found Addison Pratt, who promptly sailed away to another island, leaving James to preside over the Church there. There were only eight Church members on this very small island, with the rest of the inhabitants (383 in number) opposed to the Church. James found these people to be some of the most savage and rudest that he had met--scarcely removed from cannibalism. They did not hesitate to tell of their experiences in eating human flesh and sacrificing infant children to their idols. James began traveling around this island and preaching. He baptized a few, and that caused much excitement. Protestant ministers continued to inflame the people against him. In May of 1852 a meeting was called to decide definitely what to do with the Mormon and his followers. The young braves came armed with muskets, shouting and yelling, saying they were going to have a fat roast for tomorrow. They kindled fires and began shouting, singing, and dancing. They kept up a continual howl all night long. Then said, "Look there at that fire. It is made to consume the flesh off of your bones." At that moment the Spirit of the Lord rested mightily upon James, and he declared, "In the name of Israel's God, I defy ten of your best men, yea, the host of you, for I serve that God who delivered Daniel from the den of lions, and the three Hebrew children from the fiery furnace!" He was absolutely cool and unshaken. After this stirring speech, the natives began to quarrel and fight with one another until the whole assemblage were fighting. There was no more talk of burning him, and he was left to do his work on the island. Some two months later as James was traveling alone he happened upon one of the old men who had been a party to the decision to burn him. When the man saw James, he turned and ran. James overtook him and demanded to know why he ran from him. He answered, "Your God is a God of power and I was afraid to meet His servant." James asked how he knew that his God was a God of power and why they had not burned him as they had decided to do. He answered, "At the moment that you defied us, there was a brilliant light or pillar of fire bore down close over your head. It was a bright as the sun. We remembered reading in the Bible about Elijah calling fire down from heaven so that it consumed the captains and their fifties. . . . The young men did not see the light. They were going to burn you, and we tried to stop them. So we got into a fight. Now we all know that you are a true servant of God and we do not like to meet you out of fear." The islanders did not bother James any more. James returned to Salt Lake City on July 19 to report his mission to Brigham Young. He was married four days later to Lydia Jane Tanner, who bore him seven children. They made their home in Ogden, where James was asked to help in trading with and pacifying the Indians in that area. He also taught school, including a class in the Shoshone language. In February of 1860, the call to Great Britain was official. James did not have one dollar to his name upon leaving to fulfill this call. James labored first in Birmingham, then in Nottingham, and then in Leicester. His health was not very good much of the time. He was able to spend some time in London and see the sights there, and then returned to the Nottingham area. In spite of continuing poor health, James was able to baptize a sizeable number of people and continued to preach and visit the people as best he could. The Civil War was now being waged in the U.S., and James heard news of the battles. In April of 1861, James received notice of his release to return home. In September, 1875, James was called by Brigham Young to take another mission to the Navajo Indians. He was now 47 years old with only one good leg, but he was willing to give it his best effort. Various people owed James money, amounting to $1,000.00 in all, but he could not seem to collect it in order to prepare for the mission and to provide for his family in his absence. Still he was determined to go. When he left, the family had only ten day's supply of fuel and less than fifty pounds of flour in the house, and did not know where the next would come from. But he blessed them and told them that if they would live their religion, they would not suffer so much want when he was away as if he had stayed home. On March 30, 1892, Joseph F. Smith asked James how he would take another mission to the Society Islands. Although expressing some hesitation because of his health, James replied that "when properly called I was not afraid to go, as I had faith that God would not require of any man more than he would have the ability to do if he were faithful." He began to settle up his affairs, and while on the train to Ogden, he met Apostle Lorenzo Snow, who told him that this mission "should be one of the greatest I had ever performed." He also gave James two five-dollar gold pieces, remarking that he had been a missionary himself and wanted him to have the money. James was now 64 years old, and was to preside over the re-opening of the Society Islands Mission. Prior to his departure, his many children and grandchildren gave him a surprise party, sixtyfive of them being present. The voyage to Tahiti took the entire month of May, 1892. While in Tahiti, James was able to meet many of the saints who had known him from his previous mission. They still remembered him. He met one lady who was 120 years old. She had been blind for eight years, and had insisted that she would live till the servants of God came from Salt Lake City. When told about the missionaries, she exclaimed, "I always said you would come again! The Lord has brought you, and has prolonged my life till you came. I rejoice exceedingly at the mercies of the Lord!" She was baptized, along with seven others, and then they administered to her for her blindness. After the ordinance, she stated that she could see a little, which was more than she had done for eight years. At the official welcoming ceremony for the missionaries, an aged man related how the people had prayed that James might come back to them again to teach them the true Gospel. Following his return to Utah, James was invited to California for the Midwinter Exposition, as a guest of honor for the part he had played in colonizing that state. He was again invited to the Golden Jubilee Celebration--the 50th anniversary of the discovery of gold at Sutter's mill, as a guest of honor, and was treated royally at both of these events. He was also honored in Utah in the parade of the Utah Semi-Centennial Jubilee, as a surviving member of the Mormon Battalion. Following this, James spent much time writing the story of his most adventurous life. We, as his posterity, are so glad that he put these wonderful experiences on paper, so that we may know him better and that we might better appreciate the great sacrifices that he and others made for the Gospel.

Life timeline of James Stephens Brown

James Stephens Brown was born on 4 Jul 1828
James Stephens Brown was 3 years old when Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard HMS Beagle, during which he will begin to formulate his theory of evolution. Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
1831
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James Stephens Brown was 12 years old when Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph. Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.
1840
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James Stephens Brown was 31 years old when Petroleum is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world's first commercially successful oil well. Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
1859
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James Stephens Brown was 32 years old when Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of United States. Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through the American Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy.
1860
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James Stephens Brown was 52 years old when Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time, in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
1879
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James Stephens Brown was 59 years old when Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show opens in London. William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody was an American scout, bison hunter, and showman. He was born in Le Claire, Iowa Territory, but he lived for several years in his father's hometown in Toronto Township, Ontario, Canada, before the family returned to the Midwest and settled in the Kansas Territory.
1887
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James Stephens Brown was 65 years old when Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri. Nikola Tesla was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
1893
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James Stephens Brown died on 25 Mar 1902 at the age of 73
BillionGraves.com
Grave record for James Stephens Brown (4 Jul 1828 - 25 Mar 1902), BillionGraves Record 3502371 Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, United States

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